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Full text of "The master highway plan for the Boston metropolitan area : submitted to Robert F. Bradford, Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Joint Board for the Metropolitan Master Highway Plan, based upon a traffic survey by the Dept. of Public Works; Public Roads Administration, Federal Works Agency participating"

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FINE ARTS D 

BOSTON 

PUBLIC 

LIBRARY 




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TH E 



MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 



for the 



BOSTON METROPOLITAN AREA 



SUBMITTED TO 



HIS EXCELLENCY, ROBERT F. BRADFORD 

Governor of The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 



BY THE 



JOINT BOARD FOR THE METROPOLITAN MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 

based upon a TRAFFIC SURVEY by the 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 



PUBLIC ROADS ADMINISTRATION, FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY PARTICIPATING 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Consulting Engineers 

BOSTON 



De Leuw, Cather and Company, Chicago 



in cooperation with 



February 1, 1948 



J. E. Greiner Company, Baltimore 



FINE ARTS SEPT. * 






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JOINT BOARD 

FOR THE 

METROPOLITAN MASTER HIGHWAY 

Appointed by Executive Directive, August 9, 1947 



PLAN 



William H. Buracker, Chairman 
Commissioner of Public Works 



Elisabeth M. Herlihy, Vice Chairman 
Chairman, State Planning Board 



William T. Morrissey, Vice Chairman 
Commissioner, Metropolitan District Commission 



Harold J. Duffy, Secretary 

Chairman, Technical Committee 

Metropolitan Project Engineer, State Planning Board 

1 1 Beacon Street, Boston 8, Massachusetts 



TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 



Ralph E. Tribou 
District Engineer, Public Roads Administration 

Benjamin R. Davis 
Chief Park Engineer, Metropolitan District Commission 

Benjamin W. Fink 
Associate Civil Engineer, Metropolitan District Commission 

Ralph D. Kelley 
Senior Civil Engineer, Metropolitan District Commission 

Otis D. Fellows 
Chief Engineer, State Planning Board 



Philip H. Kitfield 
Chief Engineer, Department of Public Works 

George H. Delano 
Project Engineer, Department of Public Works 

Edgar F. Copell 
Traffic Engineer, Department of Public Works 

Joseph C. Cressy 
Assistant Traffic Engineer, Department of Public Works 

Louis H. Smith 
Assistant Civil Engineer, State Planing Board 







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JOINT BOARD 

FOR THE 

METROPOLITAN MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 



February 1, 1948 



Honorable Robert F. Bradford 

Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

State House, Boston, Massachusetts 



your excf.llf.ncy: 

J. he Joint Board, organized in compliance with your 
ing a Master Plan of Highways for the Boston Metropolitan Area, 
its consulting engineers. 

The Board has been fortunate in having as its consulting 
engineers Charles A. Maguire and Associates of Boston and their 
affiliates, DeLeuw, Cather and Company of Chicago, and J. E. 
Greiner Company of Baltimore. Exceptionally well qualified 
for this type of work, the consultants, through their highly 
trained technical staff, have achieved remarkable progress in the 
relatively short time allotted them. The Joint Board has also 
had the assistance of a Technical Committee composed of engi- 
neers from the three participating State agencies, the Department 
of Public Works, State Planning Board, and the Metropolitan 



Excellency's directive of August 9, 1947 for the purpose of prepar- 
hereby submits its report as directed, together with the report of 

District Commission, and the District Engineer of the Public 
Roads Administration, Federal Works Agency. Federal funds 
have participated in defraying the costs of the Master Plan study 
and its related traffic survey. 

The Master Plan as developed for the Area, which includes 
23 cities and towns in addition to Boston, is based upon the origin 
and destination traffic survey which was conducted by the Depart- 
ment of Public Works in co-operation with the Public Roads 
Administration, Federal Works Agency. A complete description 
of the survey, the analysis of the data, and its interpretation for 



III 



assignment to traffic routes are included in the consulting engi- 
neers' report. 

The system of highways, proposed by the Joint Board as a 
ten-year construction program for the relief of traffic congestion 
in the Area, embodies as its backbone a network of expressways 
of latest modern design and of sufficient capacity to take care of 
the traffic needs of the Area for many years to come. The major 
expressways will be of limited access type, providing for swift, 
uninterrupted flow of traffic and with no entering or cross streets 
except at prescribed points of interchange where grades will be 
separated. The pattern of expressways, as indicated by maps ac- 
companying the consultants' report, takes the form of eight 
radial routes projecting in as many directions from an inner 
circumferential or belt highway around the City. All of the 
proposed routes and the belt highway are described in detail 
and shown by separate maps in the report. 

Improvements to existing streets and highways will be neces- 
sary to supplement the major expressway system in order that 
efficient collection and distribution of traffic to and from the 
expressways may be effected. These proposed improvements 
vary in magnitude from major street widenings and grade sepa- 
rations to re-arrangement of one-way streets, channelization of 
traffic, and installation of traffic lights. The report calls attention 
to the importance of off-street parking as a means of getting the 
greatest use out of our highway systems, both present and pro- 
posed, and cites the advisability of conducting complete parking 
surveys as the basis for long range planning of parking facilities. 

The report forcefully discusses the necessity for complete 
coordination between transit and highway planning and stresses 
the importance of integration of this Master Highway Plan with 
the transit development plans of the Metropolitan Transit Recess 
Commission and the Metropolitan Transit Authority. 

The report presents estimates of costs which include con- 
struction at current prices and land damages at assessed values. 
The total cost of the Master Highway Plan, including improve- 



ments to existing streets is estimated to be $322,000,000. A pro- 
gram of stage construction, based upon priority of need and indi- 
cating costs by construction periods is also included. This, how- 
ever, is a flexible arrangement and may be varied from time to 
time to suit changing traffic demands or fluctuating financial con- 
ditions. Considering the magnitude of the plan as proposed it 
is not surprising that the cost estimates reach into many millions 
of dollars. 

As was pointed out by Your Excellency in the directive of 
August 9, the highway problems of the Commonwealth are not 
confined to the Metropolitan Area. In addition to those of this 
Area there exist throughout the remainder of the State many 
points of acute traffic congestion, many miles of inadequate high- 
ways, many bridges of insufficient width and strength. These 
problems are recognized in the current report of the Department 
of Public Works on State Highway Needs. To correct these con- 
ditions, many additional millions of dollars will be needed. 

In attempting to produce a financing program for the Metro- 
politan Plan the needs of the remainder of the State must be kept 
in mind, and a fair balance maintained in order that an equitable 
expenditure of highway funds may result. Current gasoline tax 
incomes will undoubtedly prove inadequate to provide for under- 
writing the program on a "pay-as-you-go" basis. On the other 
hand, attempting to scale construction progress down to meet the 
tempo of normal highway fund income would prolong comple- 
tion of the Plan too far into the future. Means should be found 
that will provide for an accelerated ten-year construction pro- 
gram, and at the same time keep gasoline tax levies within rea- 
sonable bounds. 

Your Joint Board, being firmly of the opinion that speed of 
accomplishment is the very essence of the proposed metropolitan 
highway system, urges that every reasonable step be taken to 
bring about its effectuation within the prescribed ten-year period. 
As previously pointed out, this cannot be accomplished under 
any "pay-as-you-go" policy, based upon present highway funds. 



IV 



While it is essential that the expressway system be completed in 
the shortest time possible, it should be remembered that the 
system is designed to tare tor our major highway needs for years 
into the future. It is only reasonable to expect that the future 
users of the system should share in its cost. It is recommended 
that beyond the amounts which may be appropriated from cur- 
rent revenues, the remainder of the costs be financed by long- 
term bond issues, using part of the proceeds of the Highway 
Fund for amortization. The projects proposed by the Master 
Plan represent a total cost approximately equal to that of the 
Department of Public Works program for the remainder of the 
State. It therefore seems reasonable to expect that one-half of the 
future funds available for new construction should be allocated 
toward the financing of this Plan. Upon that basis, studies by 
the Joint Board indicate that the proposed bond issues could be 
amortized within a 30-year period provided that there be imposed 
an additional State-wide gasoline tax of one cent per gallon, one- 
half of which should be earmarked for the Metropolitan Area. 

The entire financing program could undoubtedly be greatly 
accelerated by the collection of tolls from users of the expressway 
system. The consultants' report under the chapter "Economic 
Justification," points out the savings in time and money inherent 
in the use of modern superhighways. The proposed expressways 
will afford their users such savings in time and such comfortable 
and pleasant travel conditions that it is doubtful if there would 
be any substantial opposition to the imposition of small tolls. 
The collection of nominal tolls would not only serve to speed 
up the construction program but would hasten the retirement of 
the bonds and permit the removal of the extra gasoline tax at 
the earliest possible date. Inasmuch as a decision to recommend 
a specific system of tolls would have to be based upon an exhaus- 
tive scientific study involving many complicated factors, the 
Board is unable to make such definite recommendations at this 
time. It is urged, however, that this be immediately made the 
subject of such a study. 



A serious impediment to all major highway development in 
recent years, one which may well continue for some time, has 
been caused by the housing situation. Although every possible 
attempt is always made in laying out highways to avoid the tak- 
ing of residential property, it is impossible to locate new arterial 
routes in urban areas without affecting some homes. The natural 
reluctance on the part of highway officials to force people to va- 
cate their homes in these times of housing shortages, while under- 
standable, has nevertheless resulted in the postponement of essen- 
tial highway projects. On the other hand, the vigorous opposi- 
tion of persons whose homes are involved is also easily under- 
standable. Arguments that the few must suffer for the benefit of 
the many fail to impress the man who is told he will have to 
vacate his home to make way for a projected highway. In this 
day and age a more sympathetic approach to the problem is 
needed. 

It should now be recognized that the relocation of tenants 
is an integral part of a highway project. If homes must be taken 
to clear the right of way, advance provision should be made to 
relocate the occupants in new living quarters equally as good as 
those they are required to leave. Admittedly not easy of accom- 
plishment under present housing conditions, the solution should 
be attempted in a realistic manner, as is being done in other 
cities such as New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. When the 
structural condition of buildings permits, they should be moved 
to nearby vacant land. To assist tenants there should be set up 
an office of tenant relocation in conjunction with each major 
highway project. In congested areas, particularly those of sub- 
standard housing nature, consideration should be given to mass 
relocation of tenants in new housing projects. Sincere efforts 
along these suggested lines should go a long way toward facilitat- 
ing the acquisitions of rights of way and making possible an early 
start on actual construction. 

Since the entire program will require at least ten years to 
complete, it can readily be seen that normal use and develop- 



♦V 



ment in the meantime of the land to be affected by right of way 
acquisition could result in such growth and expansion that values 
would reach prohibitive proportions. One way to protect the 
State's rights would be to make immediate takings of all prop- 
erties to be involved. Such a procedure would obviously be im- 
practicable since the necessary expenditures would unbalance 
the entire financial plan and upset the stage construction pro- 
gram. As an alternate, there could be established a policy of 
development control, similar to that of Ohio or Pennsylvania, 
whereby the State would immediately define the right of way 
lines but postpone actual takings until necessary for construc- 
tion. Under such an arrangement land would remain in private 
ownership, with the provision that its existing use may continue 
by the owners, but no change in use, nor improvement, nor sub- 
division be allowed without official approval. 

This action would naturally raise the objection that undue 
hardship was being imposed upon property owners by restricting 
the free development of their holdings. This could be met by 
proper reimbursement to the owners for the limitation of use 
and occupancy. 

Your Joint Board concludes its report with the following 
comments and recommendations: 

For the first time the State now has a Master Highway Plan 
for the Boston Metropolitan Area based upon reliable factual 
data, data supplied by the people themselves. It might, there- 
fore, be paraphrased, not as the Joint Board's Plan, not as the 
Consultants' Plan, but as the People's Plan. If the industrial, 
social, and economic life of the Area is to be preserved, it must 
be freed from the transportation strangulation it now faces. 

The Joint Board therefore recommends: 

I. That the Plan be adopted as the Master Plan of High- 
ways for the Boston Metropolitan Area. 

II. That its financing be implemented in part by a pro- 



portionate share of a State-wide additional gasoline 
tax of one cent per gallon. 

III. That its cost be paid insofar as practicable by long 
term general obligation bonds of the Commonwealth. 

IV. That a complete study of the feasibility of toll collec- 
tion on the expressway system be instituted immedi- 
ately by the Joint Board. 

V. That legislation providing for the relocation of ten- 
ants of properties affected be enacted. 

VI. That legislation providing for the control of the de- 
velopment of land related to highway projects be 
enacted. 

VII. That consideration be given to the desirability of con- 
ducting parking surveys in Boston and other munici- 
palities. 

VIII. That the Joint Board be continued for the purpose of 
assisting in the preparation of legislation and in fur- 
ther development and effectuation of the Master 
Plan. 

IX. That the policy of highway master planning as estab- 
lished by this report be expanded to cover the other 
metropolitan areas throughout the State, to be based 
upon origin and destination studies by the Depart- 
ment of Public Works, the same to be correlated with 
the ten-year program of the Department by joint ac- 
tion of the Department of Public Works and the State 
Planning Board. 

X. That funds be appropriated to carry out the provi- 
sions of recommendations IV and IX above, recom- 
mendation IX to be on the basis of Federal funds 
participating. 



VI 



The members of your Joint Board have been proud to serve in this capacity. The origin and destination traffic survey 
conducted by the Department of Public Works in co-operation with the Public Roads Administration has been of immeasur- 
able value. It has been a pleasure to work with the consultants in the formulation of the Master Plan. Their diligent and 
intelligent approach to the problem has resulted in the splendid, comprehensive report appended hereto, prepared inde- 
pendently, with a free hand, and based solely upon factual data. 

For the earnest and sympathetic consideration of Your Excellency, the General Court, municipal officials, civic and other 
interested agencies, and all of the people of the Commonwealth, this report is 

Respectfully submitted, 



wV-C-iuA. 



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William H. Buracker, Chairman 
Commissioner of Public Works 



CjO&c/'o eJ?>-cfcSLc 



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(Miss) Elisabeth M. Herlihy, Vice Chairman 
Chairman. State Planning Board 



William T. Morrissey, Vice Chairman * 

Commissioner, Metropolitan District Commission 




♦VII 




THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 



iu 



MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN /» 
tu BOSTON METROPOLITAN AREA 



prepared for the JOINT BOARD FOR THE METROPOLITAN MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 
in cooperation with the PUBLIC ROADS ADMINISTRATION, FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY 



by 



1948 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers 

Boston. Massachusetts 



J. E. GREINER COMPANY Baltimore 

DeLEUW, CATHER & COMPANY ■ chicaco 
Consultants 



TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . 



List of Plates, Illustrations and Exhibits 2 

Letter of Transmittal 4 

Foreword 6 

Introduction 7 

Method of Approach 8 

Recommended Solution 8 

Traffic Studies 10 

Description of Origin and Destination Survey . . . . 10 

Analysis of Data 12 

The Expressway System 43 

General Considerations 43 

Design Standards 44 

Selection and Description of Routes 51 

Southeast Expressway 51 

Southwest Expressway 52 

Worcester Turnpike, State Route 9 53 

Western Expressway 54 

Northwest Expressway 55 

Northern Expressway 56 

Northeast Expressway 57 

East Boston Expressway 59 

Belt Route including Central Artery .... 60 

Embankment Road Extension 62 

Route 128, Circumferential Highway 62 

Estimates of Future Traffic 64 

Expressway Access Points 68 

Route Expansion Factors 70 

Computation of Expansion Factor 71 

Improvements in Downtown Boston 72 

Central Artery 72 



Street Widenings 73 

Embankment Road Extension 76 

Grade Separations 76 

Warren Bridge 76 

One-way Streets 77 

Proposed Street Improvements 77 

Major Street System 78 

Network of Arterials 78 

Locations of Proposed Improvements to Existing Highways 80 

Mattapan Square 81 

Morton Street and Blue Hill Avenue 81 

Arborway and Washington Street 81 

Roxbury Crossing 81 

Park Drive and Brookline Avenue 81 

Cottage Farm Bridge and Commonwealth Avenue ... 82 

Union Square, Somerville 82 

City Square, Charlestown 82 

Sullivan Square, Charlestown 82 

Revere Beach Parkway, Broadway and Main Street, Everett 82 

Roslindale Square 82 

Market Street, Lynn 83 

Cambridge Truck Route 83 

Truck Routes 93 

Parking Recommendations 94 

Coordination with Transit Improvements 96 

Estimates of Cost 100 

Economic Justification for Expressway System . . . .103 

Construction Procedure 105 

Appendix A Traffic Tables 114 

Appendix B Cost Estimate Tables 120 

Appendix C Key Map and Expressway Plans and Profiles . 124 



LIST OF PLATES, ILLUSTRATIONS AND EXHIBITS 



Plate 1 Regional Map 16 

2 Major Highway Map 17 

3 Zone Map 18 

4 Desire Lines — All Types of Motor Vehicles — Thru Trips 19 

5 Desire Lines — All Types of Motor Vehicles — Between Stations and Zones 20 

6 Desire Lines — Trucks — Between Stations and Zones 21 

7 Desire Lines — All Types of Motor Vehicles — Between Zones and Downtown 22 

8 Desire Lines — All Types of Motor Vehicles — Between Zones 23 

9 Desire Lines — Trucks — Between Zones and Downtown 24 

10 Desire Lines — Trucks — Between Zones (other than Downtown) 25 

1 1 Major Desire Lines — All Types of Motor Vehicles 26 

12 Major Desire Lines — Trucks 27 

13 Desire Lines — Mass Transportation — Between Zones and Downtown 28 

14 Desire Lines — Mass Transportation — (other than Downtown) 29 

15 Desire Lines — Railroad Passengers 30 

16 Major Desire Lines — Mass Transportation 31 

17 Major Desire Lines — Railroad Passengers 32 

18 Origins and Destinations by Zones — All Types of Motor Vehicles 33 

19 Origins and Destinations by Zones — Mass Transportation 34 

20 Trips Between Downtown Boston and Area 1 — All Types of Motor Vehicles 35 

21 Trips Between Downtown Boston and Area 2 — All Types of Motor Vehicles 36 

22 Trips between Downtown Boston and Area 3 — All Types of Motor Vehicles 37 

23 Trips Between Downtown Boston and Area 4 — All Types of Motor Vehicles 38 

24 Trips Between Downtown Boston and Area 5 — All Types of Motor Vehicles 39 

25 Trips Between Downtown Boston and Area 6 — All Types of Motor Vehicles 40 

26 Trips Between Downtown Boston and Area 7 — All Types of Motor Vehicles 41 

27 Trips with Origins or Destinations in Each Sector of Downtown Boston — All Types 42 

Typical Expressway Cross-sections 46 

Typical Expressway Cross-sections 47 

Typical Expressway Overpass and Underpass 48 

Massachusetts Avenue Interchange 49 

Expressway System with Relation to Major Desire Lines of Travel 50 

Cambridge interchange 61 

Traffic Flow Map 66 

Traffic Volumes and Lanes Map 67 

Central Artery in the Vicinity of the Sumner Tunnel 74 



2 



Longfellow Bridge Interchange 75 

Roslindale Station 84 

Mattapan Square 84 

Blue Hill Avenue and Morton Street 85 

Roxbury Crossing 86 

Brookline Avenue and Park Drive 87 

Union Square, Somerville 88 

Sullivan Square, Charlestown 89 

Revere Beach Parkway Overpass 90 

Typical Cross Sections, City Streets 91 

Market Street, Lynn , 92 

Bus Terminal 98 

Bus Station 99 

Construction Stages 107 

APPENDIX C— EXPRESSWAY PLANS AND PROFILES 

Exhibit 1 Key Map 

2 Southeast Expressway Massachusetts Avenue, Roxbury to Neponset River, Quincy 

3 Southeast Expressway Neponset River, Quincy to Rodman Street, Quincy 

4 Southeast Expressway Rodman Street, Quincy to Washington Street, Weymouth 

5 Southwest Expressway Providence Pike U. S. Route 1, Westwood to Austin Street, Hyde Park 

6 Southwest Expressway Austin Street, Hyde Park to Austin Street, Dorchester 

7 Southwest Expressway Austin Street, Dorchester to Massachusetts Avenue, Roxbury 

8 Southwest Expressway Newburn Street, Hyde Park to Neponset River Parkway, Milton 

9 Worcester Turnpike, State Route 9 . . Sumner Road, Brookline to Riverway (U. S. Route No. 1) , Brookline 

10 Western Expressway Commonwealth Avenue, Newton to Galen Street, Watertown 

1 1 Western Expressway Galen Street, Watertown to Memorial Drive, Cambridge 

12 Northwest Expressway Cambridge Street, Woburn to Bacon Street, Winchester 

13 Northwest Expressway Bacon Street, Winchester to Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge 

14 Northwest Expressway Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge to Webster Avenue, Somerville 

15 Northwest Expressway Northwest Expressway, Woburn to Elm Street, Woburn 

16 Northern Expressway Nashua Street, Boston to Mystic Valley Parkway, Medford 

17 Northern Expressway Mystic Valley Parkway, Medford to Goodyear Avenue, Melrose 

18 Northern Expressway Goodyear Avenue, Melrose to Spring Street, Stoneham 

19 Northern Expressway Spring Street, Stoneham to North Avenue, Reading 

20 Northeast Expressway Mystic River Bridge, Chelsea to Cutler Highway, Revere 

21 East Boston Expressway Sumner Tunnel, East Boston to Harmony Street, East Boston 

22 Belt Route — including Central Artery . Water Street, Somerville to Colchester Street, Brookline 

23 Belt Route — including Central Artery . Colchester Street, Brookline to Massachusetts Avenue, Roxbury 

24 Belt Route — including Central Artery . Water Street, Somerville to Warren Avenue Bridge, Boston 

25 Belt Route — including Central Artery . Warren Avenue Bridge, Boston to Massachusetts Avenue, Roxbury 



3 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



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FOREWORD 



J. HE TRAFFIC CONGESTION PROBLEMS OF THE BOSTON 

Metropolitan Area have been the subject of studies for a number of years. 
The Whitten Thoroughfare Plan for Metropolitan Boston in 1930, the 
McClintock Boston Traffic Report of 1929 and the Origin and Destination 
Survey by the State Department of Public Works are outstanding examples 
of the wealth of information that has been gathered in an effort to solve 
these problems. 

It is our purpose to present in this report a complete and comprehen- 
sive review of existing traffic conditions in the area, and to formulate, on 
the basis of the origin and destination survey data, the anticipated increase 
in vehicular traffic for which provision should be made. 

We recommend the adoption of a modern high-speed expressway sys- 
tem as the foundation on which highway construction should be pro- 
grammed for the ultimate solution of the problem. 

We gratefully acknowledge the cooperative assistance of the member- 
ship of the Governor's Joint Board for the Metropolitan Master Highway 
Plan and of the Technical Committee composed of engineers of the State 
Department of Public Works, the Metropolitan District Commission and 
the State Planning Board. We express our appreciation also to the federal, 
state and municipal agencies, including the Public Roads Administration, 
Federal Works Agency, and to civic organizations and the many individuals, 
who have freely furnished valuable data based on their studies and ex- 
perience. 



6 







METROPOLITAN 



-""- e ' 













FOR 300 YEARS, HAS BEEN THE HUB OF NEW ENGLAND'S 
transportation facilities. A seaport of renown, Boston now promises to become an air terminal of equal international impor- 
tance. Railroads radiateto the north, south and west, while more than a hundred highways cross a cordon line around the 
Metropolitan Area. This accessibility promotes active trade and generates the employment to support the population of one of 
the world's truly great cities. 



All of the people and all of the goods, whether they arrive 
in Boston by air, sea, rail or highway, are transported to their 
ultimate destinations over the streets of Boston and of the many 
other cities and towns comprising the Metropolitan Area. Super- 
imposed on this movement is the daily travel of the residents to 
and from the numerous colleges and universities, the office build- 
ings, the retail stores, the industrial plants, and all the other 
traffic generators of the area. It is now known for the first time 
that these trips by automobile, by truck, and as passengers of 
public carriers exceed two million persons daily. 

Many of the streets in Boston and in the surrounding cities 
and towns were intended for no more voluminous traffic than a 
few wagons per day and an occasional rider on horseback. These 
narrow streets are in no sense adequate for the movement of auto- 
motive traffic, and in some cases cannot even furnish proper ac- 
cess to abutting property for the delivery of goods. There are a 
number of fine arterial streets and parkways in the area, however, 
which, through constant improvement, have served the needs of 
traffic reasonably well until recent years. 

As in all other large American cities, improvement of traffic 



facilities has been curtailed during the past two decades, first, as 
a result of the depression and then because of the shortages of 
manpower and materials during World War II. During this 
same period, and despite the retarding factors mentioned, ve- 
hicular traffic in the Boston Metropolitan Area, as measured by 
gasoline consumption, has increased fifty per cent and is cur- 
rently growing at an amazing rate. 

Greater Boston is no worse off for traffic facilities than other 
cities of comparable size. All of them are planning new urban 
highways which will cost many millions of dollars in each city. 
Boston is perhaps fortunate in not having spent large sums, as 
several other cities have done, for traffic improvements which are 
obsolete when measured against present standards for urban 
highways. Boston can now profit by the mistakes and experi- 
ments of other cities and can build with confidence a modern 
system of traffic facilities. 

Your Joint Board has very wisely concluded that it is time 
to review past accomplishments, assemble the best available in- 
formation and ideas for needed improvements, and then prepare 
an integrated Master Highway Plan. This plan to provide for the 



7 



future needs of highway traffic must be comprehensive enough 
to accomplish this objective and yet be within the financial means 
of the community. 

In preparing such a plan, your consultants have drawn freely 
on the talents and past labors of the many local agencies and 
groups which have studied and reported on traffic and highway 
problems of the area. Most of the ideas contained herein were 
proposed first by others. A large number of reports were utilized 
in the preparation of these plans. Proposals for needed highways 
and other improvements have been taken from these reports 
without it being possible in all instances to give well-deserved 
credit. The consultants endorse, however, and assume respon- 
sibility for any opinions stated or plans proposed. 

The successful culmination of an engineering, legislative 
and financial program to secure modern street and highway 
facilities for the Boston Metropolitan Area will require the best 
efforts of every individual and every agency concerned with this 
problem. In the accomplishment, there will be ample credit for 
all. 



METHOD OF APPROACH 

A great mass of relevant data was made available to your 
consultants as a basis for the conclusions and recommendations 
embodied in this report. The foundation of the entire Master 
Highway Plan rests on the facts derived from the origin and 
destination study of motor vehicles. These data were secured 
in the survey made by the Department of Public Works of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts with the cooperation of the 
Public Roads Administration, Federal Works Agency. This in- 
formation has been supplemented by traffic studies made by 
various agencies in all parts of the Metropolitan Area. 

The consultants also had the benefit of the advice and coun- 
sel of numerous official and semi-official bodies and of individ- 



uals. This aid has ranged in degree from calling attention to 
troublous traffic spots to the submission of complete preliminary 
plans. 

The consultants spent considerable time in the field to be- 
come familiar with the geography of the area, with the nature of 
the various existing traffic facilities and with the characteristics 
of traffic. Reconnaisance surveys of potential rights-of-way for 
new highways were made on several times as many miles of routes 
as were finally incorporated in the recommended system of ex- 
pressways. Studies were also made of the cost of alternate plans, 
both for rights-of-way and for construction, together with traffic- 
wise evaluations of such alternates. 

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION 

A complete system of expressways to serve the entire area 
forms the backbone of the recommended solution to Metropol- 
itan Boston's complex traffic problems. So that there may be no 
confusion in the use of terms, it should be made clear that the 
word "expressway" as used in this report is synonomous with 
the terms "freeway" and "limited access highway." Expressways 
in this sense are channels for the uninterrupted movement of 
motor vehicles. They are connected with the adjoining street 
system through properly designed entrances and exits at reason- 
ably spaced intervals. Generally depressed below the level of the 
territory through which they pass, they occupy strips of generous 
width with properly landscaped side slopes, giving them a park- 
like appearance. They may be built as elevated structures, how- 
ever, in areas of high property values; where a depressed road- 
way would be below sea-level; or where existing underground 
structures, such as subways, make depressed roadways infeasible. 
In the outer portions of a metropolitan area where cross-streets 
are infrequent, it is often possible to build expressways conform- 
ing generally with existing ground contours over considerable 
distances. On a true expressway of any of these types, the inter- 



8 



ferences and accident potentials of pedestrians, cross-traffic, bus 
stops, parking maneuvers and other traffic hazards are eliminated 
by physical means. Expressways may be restricted to private 
automobiles or they may be opened to general highway traffic. 
The expressways discussed herein are intended for the use of all 
types of vehicles unless otherwise explicitly stated. 

Functional plans have been prepared for surface improve- 
ments in downtown Boston which are deemed sufficient to make 
possible the collection and dispersion of expressway traffic. These 
recommended changes will also expedite the movement of traffic 
to and from the area on other major arteries, present and pro- 
posed. 

A network of principal streets covering the entire metropol- 
itan area has been selected. It is recommended that the streets so 
designated be brought to maximum possible efficiency by the 
proper use of traffic signs, signals and markings; by the enact- 
ment of needed parking regulations and stringent enforcement 
thereof; by the installation of modern street lighting to bring 
the level of illumination on each artery to the standard recom- 



mended by committees of impartial authorities specializing in 
this field; and, where appropriate, by more elaborate physical 
changes such as channelization, by-passes, or grade separation 
structures. 

These plans for new highway facilities and for improvements 
in the use of those now existing will not be adequate unless other 
plans now under consideration, or their equivalent, are carried 
out successfully. Among these complementary plans are the pro- 
gram for extensions and betterments of the rapid transit system, 
the union truck terminals proposed by the Boston City Planning 
Board, plans for an improved and relocated market district, and 
plans for off-street parking facilities not only in downtown Boston 
but also in other parts of the metropolitan area. 

It should be emphasized that no one can ride to work on 
plans for highways. This report must be implemented by proper 
legislative action, by a sound financial plan and by a vigorous 
construction program to assure these recommendations being 
transmuted into steel and concrete. 



m 



9 



TRAFFIC STUDIES 



L HIS MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN STUDY IS BASED ON THE 

most comprehensive traffic data ever available in the Boston 
Metropolitan Area. The costliness and complexity of modern 
urban highway improvements require a sound foundation of 
factual data. For this reason, a technique of gathering and ana- 
lyzing complete information on the origins and destinations of 
trips by individuals in private or commercial motor vehicles and 
by mass transportation has been developed to a high degree of 
refinement during recent years. This type of information forms 
the background for this report. 

The origin and destination study in Boston and vicinity is 
similar to those recently completed in 60 other American cities 
of all sizes. The study consists largely of travel data obtained 
through home interviews, supplemented by an external survey 
which involved roadside interviews and traffic counts. This sur- 
vey was undertaken by the Department of Public Works, Traffic 
Division, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in cooperation with 
the Public Roads Administration, Federal Works Agency. 

In rural areas, the pattern of vehicle movement can generally 
be determined satisfactorily by counting vehicles. If additional 
information is required, the vehicles may be stopped and such 
pertinent information as origins and destinations obtained. In 
urban areas, however, traffic congestion and the multiplicity of 
streets make roadside interviewing impractical. In addition to 
the movement of passenger cars, taxis and trucks, it is necessary 
to obtain data on the movements of individuals themselves, 
whether they travel by private vehicle, truck, taxi, street car, bus 
or otherwise, and it is especially important to obtain information 
concerning their origins and destinations. Further, it is impor- 
tant to know when, where, how and for what reason people travel. 



DESCRIPTION OF ORIGIN AND 

DESTINATION SURVEY Study Area 

The Boston Metropolitan Traffic Study Area is comprised of 
approximately 380 square miles with an estimated population of 
1,810,000. In addition to the City of Boston, the following cities 
and towns are included in the study area: Arlington, Belmont, 
Braintree, Brookline, Cambridge, Chelsea, Dedham, Everett, 
Lynn, Maiden, Medford, Melrose, Milton, Newton, Quincy, 
Revere, Saugus, Somerville, Waltham, Watertown, Weymouth, 
Winchester and Winthrop. The study area is served by three 
U. S. routes, namely, 1, 3, and 20, in addition to state numbered 
routes as shown on 

Plate 1 — Regional Map Showing U. S. Routes, 

Plate 2 — Important Roads, Cities and Towns Adjacent to 
Study Area. 

Division of Study Area 

In order to obtain complete information on traffic move- 
ments, each city and town within the study area was divided into 
zones and further subdivided into sectors, the latter consisting 
of two or three city blocks. The area was thus subdivided into 
138 zones and 648 sectors of which 17 zones containing 177 sec- 
tors were located in downtown Boston. For analysis, the zone 
was used as the smallest subdivision except for special studies. 
However, all origins and destinations were coded by both zones 
and sectors, which will make possible the study of specific high- 
way locations as required. Plate 3 shows the subdivision of the 
study area into zones. 



10 



Sampling and Interviewing 

A sampling technique similar to the method successfully 
employed in public opinion polls was used. The accuracy of this 
procedure has been proven by the Bureau of Census, and by the 
experience in other metropolitan areas in conducting similar 
surveys. Its success depends on the selection of a truly represen- 
tative sample and the proper training and supervision of inter- 
viewers. 

The origin and destination study was divided into two 

phases: 

1. Internal survey, including 

a. Selection of samples for homes, 

trucks, and taxis 

b. Home interviews 

c. Truck interviews 

d. Taxi interviews 

2. External survey 

a. Traffic counts 

b. Roadside interviews 

In selecting the sample for home interviews, Sanborn and 
zone maps were used. A five per cent sample was selected which 
produced 21,444 units, from which 22,512 interviews were ob- 
tained, and 22,409 were completed. (Some units contained two 
or more households.) 

In the case of both taxicabs and trucks, a 10 per cent sample 
was used. A total sample of 194 taxis was selected which pro- 
duced 172 interviews. In the truck survey a sample of 2,873 
trucks was selected which produced 2,381 interviews. The dif- 
ference between the total sample and total interviews is ac- 
counted for by the fact that some of the sample vehicles were out 
of operation. 

Qualified interviewers, specially trained for the work, visited 
apartment houses, private homes, rooming houses, hotels, institu- 
tions, hospitals and colleges in each section of the study area. 
They questioned the occupants concerning trips made by each 



member of the household on the preceding day, including travel 
by automobile, taxi, rapid transit, bus and train. At hotels, only 
permanent guests were interviewed, and at institutions only staff 
employees. The interviews were made on weekdays from Tues- 
days through Saturdays and the interviewers obtained informa- 
tion on travel on the day preceding the interview. Interviews 
were conducted for the selected sample only and no substitutes 
were permitted. 

The external survey determined the travel habits of persons 
entering the study area. On all roads intersecting the boundary 
around the study area and carrying significant volumes of traffic, 
passenger car, taxi and truck drivers were stopped and ques- 
tioned as to their origins and destinations. Forty seven of the 
105 roads that crossed the cordon carried 90 per cent of the daily 
traffic. Roadside interview stations were set up on these 47 high- 
ways and over 65 per cent of all vehicles that passed through these 
stations were stopped and interviewed on a typical weekday. 

These two phases of study were carried on simultaneously 
from September 4, 1945 to December 15, 1945 for weekday travel 
only, Monday through Friday, and the data recorded at the road- 
side interview stations were correlated with the internal inter- 
view information. 

Accuracy of Survey 

A screen line was established to check the accuracy of the 
expanded interview data. The line selected started at the Sum- 
ner Tunnel, crossed the Charlestown district, the Warren and 
Prison Point Bridges, and then followed the Fitchburg Division 
of the Boston and Maine Railroad through Somerville, Cam- 
bridge and Belmont. Daily volume counts were made at each 
of the 21 roads crossing the screen line. These volumes were 
then compared with the probable traffic as derived from the ex- 
panded interview data. For the 16-hour period from 7:00 A.M. 
to 11:00 P.M. the interview accuracy was 91 per cent, which 
compares favorably with similar surveys in other cities. 



11 









Il 











ANALYSIS OF DATA 

The traffic data collected from the interviews make it pos- 
sible to learn where people go, the time pattern of travel, the trip 
purposes, and the modes of transportation. Analysis of this in- 
formation provides the basis for selecting route locations to best 
serve the traffic needs of the study area. Estimates can also be 
made of the traffic volumes which will use the various sections of 
the proposed routes as well as the use of proposed access facilities. 

The traffic movement of vehicles and passengers is divided 
into four classes as follows: 

- Movement of all types of motor vehicles from one 
roadside interview station to another without a stop 
within the area. 

Movement of all types of motor vehicles between 
roadside interview stations and zones. 



Class 1 



Class 2 



Class 3 — Movement of all types of motor vehicles between 
zones. 

Class 4 — Mass transportation passenger movement between 
zones. 



12 



The following tabulation shows a recapitulation of these 
classes: 



Total 



Means of Travel 
MOTOR VEHICLE TRIPS BY: 

Passenger Cars and Taxi . 7,715 

Trucks 1,090 

Total Motor Vehicle Trips . . 8,805 



Station 


Station 


Zone 


to 


to 


to 


Station 


Zone 


Zone 



154,883 467,148 629,746 

21,960 158,257 181,307 

176,843 625,405 811,053 



MASS TRANSPORTATION 

Boston Elevated Railway Company 
Vehicles* .... 

Alone .... 

In Combination 
Independent Buses . 

Alone .... 

In Combination 
Suburban Railroads 

Alone .... 

In Combination 
Total Mass Transportation 

* Now operated by Metropolitan Transit Authority. 



807,600 



760,986 
46,614 

117,591 
5,943 

32,561 
15,776 

979,471 979,471 



123,534 



48,337 



Desire Lines of Travel 

From the data obtained on the various classes of traffic move- 
ment, desire lines of travel for all types of motor vehicles — 
passenger cars, taxis, and trucks — as well as Metropolitan Transit 
Authority and independent bus patrons, and suburban railroad 
passengers were prepared. A desire line can be defined as a 
straight line between the point of origin and the point of des- 
tination of a trip or group of similar trips, without regard to 
routes traveled, in other words the line of travel if a direct high- 
way existed. These lines were drawn between roadside interview 



stations, between roadside interview stations and the geograph- 
ical center of zones, and between zones. In the preparation of 
charts showing desire lines of travel, the intra-zone trips are 
omitted because it is not feasible to show directional flow within 
a zone. 

Major directional desire lines were prepared showing travel 
by all types of motor vehicles, by trucks only, by vehicles of the 
Metropolitan Transit Authority and by independent buses, and 
by suburban railroads. These major directional desire lines are 
shown on Plates 11, 12, 16 and 17, respectively. The bands do 
not show trip lengths, neither do they establish the exact location 
for traffic routes. They should not be confused with traffic flow 
charts which show actual or anticipated traffic on existing or pro- 
posed facilities. Each band is merely a grouping of the various 
desire lines having a like direction into a band showing that di- 
rectional desire. The major directional desire lines form a basis 
for selection of the general location of expressways, street im- 
provements, or rapid transit routes from the viewpoint of traffic 
service. The widths of the bands indicate the approximate vol- 
ume of vehicles or passengers each route would attract. The 
bands are relative only and represent such trips as fall within 
rather close limits along the direction of the major desire lines 
of travel. 

Motor Vehicle Trips 

Appendix 1 shows the number of daily trips by all types of 
motor vehicles passing thru the study area from cordon to cordon, 
identified by station of entry. 

Appendix 2 shows by types of motor vehicles the number of 
daily trips with origin or destination within the study area that 
crossed the cordon line and the stations thru which they passed. 

In order to present a complete picture of the movement of 
all types of motor vehicles between zones, Appendix 3 gives a 
recapitulation of these data. The totals in this tabulation are 
sums of the actual daily expanded trips segregated into total 



inter and intra-zone trips, intra-zone trips and inter-zone trips 
for zones of the downtown area and all other zones. 

Mass Transportation Passenger Movement Between Zones 

The inter- and intra-zone travel by Boston El (now the 
Metropolitan Transit Authority) , independent bus and subur- 
ban railroad represents 979,471 daily trips, divided as follows: 
Boston Elevated Railway Company's Vehicles 807,600 

Independent Buses 123,534 

Suburban Railroad 48,337 

Of these, 908,058, or 92.71 per cent, are inter-zone trips, while the 
remaining 71,413 or 7.29 per cent, are intra-zone trips. In order 
to show mass transportation passenger trips, which have origin 
or destination in zones of the downtown area separately from 
those that have origin and destination in other zones but must 
pass through the downtown area, these passenger trips have 
also been segregated into two groups, one showing the travel be- 
tween downtown area and zones and the other between zones 
exclusive of the downtown area. See Plates 13 and 14. 

The intra-zone passenger trips are not shown on the plates 
portraying Metropolitan Transit Authority, independent bus or 
railroad passenger travel. 

Actual fare collections are known to be greater than the 
above figures indicate, just as screen line volume counts of ve- 
hicles were greater than volumes as derived by analysis of the 
home interview surveys. The patterns of transit traffic movement 
as revealed by these data are proportionately correct, however, 
and can be expanded accordingly. A summary of the survey data 
will be found in Appendix 4 which also recapitulates vehicular 
data. 

The following tabulation shows a recapitulation of the 
movement between zones of mass transportation passengers, 
either by Metropolitan Transit Authority, independent buses or 
suburban railroads. These data are shown as total inter- and 
intra-zone trips, intra-zone trips alone and inter-zone trips alone 
for zones of the downtown area and for all other zones. 



13 



Suburban Boston 

Movement Railroad Bus El Total 

Inter- and Intra-Zone Trips Between 
Downtown Area and Other Zones . 39,076 5,775 413,973 458,824 

Inter- and Inira-Zone Trips Between 
Zones Exclusive of Downtown Area . 9,261 117,759 393,627 520,647 

Total Inter- and Intra-Zone Trips . . 48.337 123,534 807,600 979,471 

Intra-Zone Trips — 

Downtown Area 1,407 1,407 

Downtown Area 

Other Zones 63 17,653 52,290 70,006 

Total Intra-Zone Trips 63 17,653 53,697 71,413 

Inter-Zone Trips — Downtown Area 
and Other Zones 38,971 5,775 391,797 436543 

Inter-Zone Trips — 

Downtown Area 105 20,769 20,874 

Between Other Zones 9,198 100,106 341,337 450,641 

Total Inter-Zone Trips 48,274 105.881 753,903 908,058 

Intra-Area Trips — Downtown Area . 105 22,176 22,281 

Origins and Destinations 
In order to ascertain the movement of traffic within the study 
area, it is important to know the origin and destination of trips 
made in private vehicles and also those by mass transportation. 
As a trip consists of a journey between an origin and a des- 
tination, the total number of origins and destinations within any 
area is twice the number of inter- and intra-zone trips plus the 
inter-area trips having either origin or destination within the 
area. 

The total number of inter- and intra-zone trips for all types 
of motor vehicles within the study area was 625,405. This multi- 
plied by two gives 1,250,810 origins and destinations within the 
study area to which must be added 176,843 inter-study area trips 
which have either an origin or destination within the study area 
making a grand total of 1,427,653 origins and destinations. As 
through trips do not have either origins or destinations within 
the study area, they are not included. 



For mass transportation, origins and destinations are shown 
only for the zone to zone movement within the study area be- 
cause it was not practicable to stop vehicles in this category at 
roadside interview stations for the purpose of interviewing 
passengers. 

The total number of inter- and intra-zone daily Boston 
Elevated, independent bus and suburban railroad passenger trips 
within the study area was 979,471. This multiplied by two gives 
1,958,942 origins and destinations within the study area. 

Origins and destinations for all types of motor vehicles and 
for mass transportation by cities and towns will be found in 
Appendix 5 and Appendix 6, and graphically on Plates 18 and 
19, respectively. 

Traffic to the Downtown Area 

Boston, like most other large cities, has serious traffic prob- 
lems in the downtown area. From the data collected by the 
origin and destination survey, the residents have revealed where 
they want to go. Construction of new facilities or improvement 
of existing streets in the locations indicated by correct interpre- 
tation of these data will aid in the collection and dispersion of 
downtown traffic. 




14 



Congestion on the downtown streets will also be reduced to 
the extent that they are now overburdened, with traffic which 
will be over-passed or by-passed on the proposed expressways. 
Potentialities for relief as a result of this expedient are not as 
great as in the case in most other large cities. 

An analysis of the data from the recent survey shows that 
25.47 per cent of all the traffic in and out of the study area either 
goes through, into or moves within the downtown area of Boston. 
This traffic is divided as follows: 18.24 per cent had origin or 
destination in the business district, 1.85 per cent went thru 
without stopping, and 5.38 per cent of all trips made in the sur- 
vey area had both origins and destinations in the downtown area. 
Only 16.9 per cent of the traffic entering downtown Boston could 
be by-passed. 

The daily movement of all types of motor vehicles between 
zones of the entire study area plus the 47 roadside stations and 
zones of the downtown area is 147,925 daily trips, divided as 
follows: 117,984 daily trips between zones of the entire study 
area and the downtown area and 29,941 between roadside inter- 
view stations and the downtown area being 79.76 and 20.24 per 
cent, respectively, of the total daily trips. 

In addition there are 43,666 daily trips made wholly within 
the downtown area and 15,002 trips pass thru the area without 
stopping. Therefore, a total of 206,593 motor vehicle trips had 
origin or destination within, or passed thru, the downtown area. 

In order to portray graphically the movement between the 
downtown area and the various zones and roadside interview 
stations the entire study area was divided into seven areas radiat- 
ing from downtown Boston. 



Plates 20 to 26, inclusive, show graphically the dispersion of 
daily traffic between the downtown area and the various areas 
and roadside interview stations. Detailed information for each 
area and for a composite of all areas is given in Appendix 7. 

The intra-zone travel of 43,666 daily trips within the down- 
town area is not shown on the plates nor in Appendix 7, neither 
is the through movement of 15,002 trips, or travel between inter- 
view stations. 

The greatest number of daily trips into the downtown area 
is from the west. The movement from this area is 42,127 daily 
trips or 28.48 per cent of the 147,925 daily trips. The least num- 
ber of daily trips into the downtown area is from South Boston 
or Area 7. The movement from this area is 8,095 daily trips or 
5.47 per cent. 

The greatest number of daily trips from points outside the 
study area alone to the downtown area is from the northwest, 
and the fewest from the north. 

Supporting Data 

The traffic information presented briefly in the foregoing 
presentation and accompanying exhibits is supported not only 
by the basic data prepared by the Department of Public Works, 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, but also by 18 thick volumes 
of tables summarizing and analyzing these data which were pre- 
pared by the consultants. These volumes should be carefully 
preserved, as they will prove of constant value in the implement- 
ing of the recommendations contained herein and in the detailed 
studies of other traffic problems which will be made in the future. 



15 



PLATE 1 




REGIONAL MAP 

A map of the Boston Metropolitan Traffic Study Area with relation to the surrounding states showing U. S. numbered routes and the proposed 
interstate highway system. 



16 



HAMPSHIRE 




PLATE 2 



MAJOR HIGHWAY MAP 

Cities and towns within twenty-five miles of the 
Origin and Destination Study Area showing impor- 
tant State highways. 




17 



PLATE 3 



ZONE MAP 

The Boston Metropolitan Traffic Study Area sub- 
divided into 138 zones. 

The numbered zones on the map torm the basis 
for the origin and destination study procedure. 
Also shown and identified by number are the 47 
roadside interview stations where trip information 
was obtained from motor vehicle drivers entering 
and leaving the study area. 



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PLATE 4 



DESIRE LINES 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 
— Thru Trips 

Desire lines of travel for all types of motor vehicles, 
in volumes of 100 trips or over per day, from one 
roadside interview station to another without stop- 
ping in the study area. Of a daily total of 8,805 such 
trips, 2,781 or 31.58 percent take place in groups of 
100 or over and are therefore charted on the exhibit. 
The 8,805 thru trips across the study area from cor- 
don to cordon represent only 1.09 percent of the 
811,053 daily trips made thru to, from or within 
the study area. Of these thru trips, 7,715 or 86.62 
percent represent passenger cars or taxis while the 
balance are made by trucks. 




19 



PLATE 5 



DESIRE LINES 



All Types of Motor Vehicles 
— Between Stations and Zones 



Desire lines of travel for all types of motor vehicles, 
in trip volumes of 100 and over per day, between 
roadside interview stations and zones. The bars 
represent 115,545 trips or 65.34 percent of the total 
176,843 daily trips between roadside interview sta- 
tions and zones. These 176,843 trips are only 21.80 
percent of a total of 81 1,053 trips made daily in the 
study area. A directional breakdown by types of 
vehicles follows: 

Between AH Roadside 
Type of Vehicle Interview Stations and Zones 

Volume Percent of ( ) 

All Types of Motor Vehicles . . 176,843 (1) 100.00 
Passenger Cars and Taxis . . . 154,883 (2) 87.58 (1) 
Trucks 21,960 (3) 12.42 (1) 

Between Northern Roadside 
Interview Stations and Zones 

All Types of Motor Vehicles . . 89,092 50.37 (1) 

Passenger Cars and Taxis . . . 78,268 50.53 (2) 

Trucks 10,814 49.24 (3) 

Between Western Roadside 
Interview Stations and Zones 

All Types of Motor Vehicles . . 38,757 21.92 (1) 

Passenger Cars and Taxis . . . 34,025 21.97 (2) 

Trucks 4,732 21.55 (3) 

Between Southern Roa dside 
Interview Stations and Zones 

All Types of Motor Vehicles . . 49,004 27.71 (1) 

Passenger Cars and Taxis . . . 42,590 27.50 (2) 

Trucks 6,414 2921 (3) 



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PLATE 6 



DESIRE LINES 

Trucks — Between Stations and Zones 

Desirk lines of travel for trucks, in volumes of 50 
trips and over per day, between roadside interview 
stations and zones. The bars represent 6,977 trips 
or 31.77 percent of a daily total of 21,960 truck trips 
and 3.95 percent of the 176,843 daily trips between 
roadside interview stations and zones. The 21,960 
truck trips represent 3.85 percent of 181,307 daily 
truck trips thru, into and within the study area. 



Z Z 'J LJlf" 









21 



PLATE 7 



DESIRE LINES 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 
Between Zones and Downtown 

Desire lines of travel for all types of motor vehicles 
in volumes of 100 trips and over per day, for inter- 
zone trips between the downtown area and other 
zones. The lines represent 86,114 trips or 57.64 per- 
cent of 149,412 daily inter-zone trips between the 
downtown area and other zones. Not shown are 
43,666 daily intra-area trips within the downtown 
area. 

All inter- and intra-zone trips by all types of 
motor vehicles traveling within the study area rep- 
resent 625,405 daily trips or 77.11 percent of the 
total 811,053 daily motor vehicle trips. Of the 
625,405 daily trips, 515,940 or 82.50 percent, are 
inter-zone trips, while the balance are intra-zone 
trips. The inter-zone trips represent the major por- 
tion of the traffic moving in the study area and it is 
this traffic that the proposed system of expressways 
is intended to serve. 

The intra-zone trips are omitted from the plates 
showing the desire lines of travel for zone to zone 
movement because it was not feasible to show the 
directional How within a zone. 

In order to show movements which have origin 
or destination in the zones of the downtown area 
separately from those which have origin or destina- 
tion in other zones but must pass through the down- 
town area, the desire lines of travel portraying the 
zone to zone movement have been divided into 
groups — one showing the travel between the down- 
town area and zones, and the other between zones 
exclusive of the downtown area. 



22 




COADON UNE 

OTT OB TOWN UNt 
IONE Line 



©ROADSIDE INTERVIEW 
STATIONS 




PLATE 8 



DESIRE LINES 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Between Zones 

(Exclusive of Downtown) 

Desire lines of travel for all types of motor vehicles, 
in trip volumes of 100 trips and over per day, for 
inter-zone trips between zones other than those in 
the downtown area. The lines represent 294,888 
trips or 80.45 percent of 366,528 daily inter-zone 
trips between zones other than those in the down- 
town area. Not shown are 109,465 daily intra-zone 
trips within the study area, 12,238 of which were in 
the downtown area. 

Of the 515,940 daily inter-zone trips within the 
entire study area 117,984, or 22.87 percent, were 
between the downtown area and other zones, 31,428, 
or 6.09 percent, were between zones of the down- 
town area, while the balance was between zones, 
exclusive of the downtown area. See Appendix 3. 




23 



PLATE 9 



DESIRE LINES 

Trucks 
Between Zones and Downtown 

Desire lines of travel for trucks, in trip volumes of 
50 trips and over per day, for inter-zone trips be- 
tween the downtown area and other zones. The 
lines represent 14,590 trips or 41.55 percent of the 
35,112 daily inter-zone truck trips between the 
downtown area and other zones. Not shown are 
22,450 daily intra-area truck trips within the down- 
town area. 

All inter- and intra-zone trips by trucks traveling 
within the study area represent 158,257 trips or 
25.30 percent of the total 625,405 daily trips. Of the 
158,257 daily trips 114,707, or 72.48 percent, are 
inter-zone trips while the balance are intra-zone 
trips. 

Of the 114,707 daily inter-zone trips 21,232, or 
18.51 percent, were between zones of the downtown 
area and other zones, 13,880 or 12.10 percent were 
between zones of the downtown area while the re- 
maining 79,595 daily trips, or 69.39 percent, were 
between zones exclusive of the downtown area. Of 
the 43,550 intra-zone trips, 8,570 were in the down- 
town area. 



24 









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PLATE 1 



DESIRE LINES 

Trucks — Between Zones 
(Exclusive of Downtown) 

Desire lines of travel for trucks, in volumes of 50 
trips and over per day, for inter-zone trips between 
zones other than those in the downtown area. The 
lines represent 59,862 trips or 75.21 percent of the 
total 79,595 daily inter-zone truck trips between 
zones other than those in the downtown area. Not 
shown are 34,980 daily intra-zone truck trips within 
the study area. 












25 



PLATE 11 



MAJOR DESIRE LINES 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Major directional desire lines of travel for all types 
of motor vehicle trips, internal and external. The 
volumes as shown by width of bands are relative 
only and represent such trips as fall within rather 
close limits of these directional lines. The 13 major 
desire lines shown represent 371,680 trips divided as 

follows: 

Between roadside interview stations . . 1.533 

Between roadside interview stations and 

zones 66,063 

Inter-zone trips 304,084 

Total 371,680 

This volume represents 52.98 percent of 701,588 
daily trips made through, into and within the study 
area, exclusive of intra-zone movement, for all types 
of motor vehicles. 

These bands do not show trip lengths nor do they 
establish the most feasible location for traffic facil- 
ities. Each band is merely a grouping of the various 
desire lines along a like direction, into a band show- 
ing that directional desire. 




— conooN un( 
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IONC UHC 



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PLATE 12 



MAJOR DESIRE LINES 

Trucks 

Major directional desire lines of travel for truck 
trips, both internal and external. The volumes as 
shown by width of bands are relative only and rep- 
resent such trips as fall within rather close limits 
of these directional lines. The eight major desire 
lines shown on the plate represent 98,041 trips 
divided as follows: 

Between roadside interview stations . . 40 

Between roadside interview stations and 
zones 6,554 

Inter -zone trips 91,447 



Total 98,041 

This volume represents 71.17 percent of 137,757 
daily truck trips made thru, into and within the 
study area, exclusive of intra-zone movement. 

These bands do not show trip lengths nor do 
they establish the most feasible locations for traffic 
routes. As on Plate 1 1 each band is merely a group- 
ing of the various desire lines, along a like direc- 
tion, into a band showing that directional desire. 



27 



PLATE 13 



DESIRE LINES 

Mass Transportation 
Between Zones and Downtown 

Desire lines of travel for Boston Elevated Railway 
Company (now Metropolitan Transit Authority) 
and independent bus passengers, in volumes of 100 
trips and over per day, for inter-zone trips between 
the downtown area and other zones. The lines rep- 
resent 378,890 trips or 95.30 percent of 397,572 daily 
inter-zone Boston El and independent bus passenger 
trips between the downtown area and other zones. 
The pJate does not show the 22,176 daily intra-area 
Boston El passenger trips within the downtown 
area. 

The following table classifies trips by public trans- 
portation, other than suburban railroads which ac- 
count for only 4.94 percent of the total: 

Number and Percent of Transit Trips 

Boston Independent 
Elevated Bus 

Total (Including Railroad) 979,471 (1) 

Inter- and Intra Zone . . . 807,600 (2) 123,534 (4) 

82.45% of (1) 12.61 % of (1) 

Inter-Zone 753,903 (3) 105,881 (5) 

93.35% of (1) 85.71% of (4) 
Between Downtown and 

other Zones 391,797 5,775 

51.97% of (3) 5.45% of (5) 
Between Zones Exclusive of 
the Downtown .... 341,337 100,106 

45.27% of (3) 94.55% of (5) 
Between Zones of Down- 
town Area 20,769 

2.75% of (3) 

Intra-Zone 

Downtown Area .... 1,407 _... 

Other 52,290 17,653 

14.29% of (4) 








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PLATE 14 



DESIRE LINES 

Moss Transportation 
Between Zones — Exclusive of Downtown 

Desire lines ot travel for Boston Elevated and in- 
dependent bus passengers, in volumes of 100 trips 
and over per day, for inter-zone trips between zones 
other than those in the downtown area. The lines 
represent 403,328 passenger trips or 91.37 percent 
of 441,443 daily passenger inter-zone trips between 
zones other than in the downtown area. There are 
69,943 daily passenger intra-zone trips within the 
study area which are not shown. 



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29 



PLATE 15 



DESIRE LINES 

Railroad Passengers 

Desire lines of travel for railroad passengers, in 
volumes of 50 trips and over per day, for inter-zone 
trips. The lines represent 37,184 passenger trips or 
77.03 percent of 48,274 daily inter-zone railroad 
passenger trips. 

Of the 48,274 daily ■ inter-zone trips, 38,971 or 
80.73 percent were between zones of the downtown 
area and other zones, 105 or 0.22 percent, were be- 
tween zones of the downtown area, while the re- 
maining 9,198 or 19.05 percent, were between zones 
exclusive of the downtown area. There were no 
intra-area trips within the downtown area. 

All inter- and intra-zone trips by railroad pas- 
sengers represent 48,337 daily trips or 4.94 percent 
of the total 979,471 daily trips by mass transporta- 
tion. Of the 48,337 railroad passenger trips 48,274 
or 99.87 percent, are inter-zone trips, while only 63 
are intra-zone trips. 



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PLATE 16 



MAJOR DESIRE LINES 

Mass Transportation 

A composite map showing major directional desire 
lines of travel for Boston Elevated and independent 
bus passengers. The volumes as shown by width of 
bands are relative only and represent such pass- 
enger trips as fall within rather close limits of these 
directional lines. The 12 major desire lines shown 
on the plate represent 485,132 trips divided as fol- 
lows: 

Boston Elevated 414,307 

Independent Bus 70,825 



Total 485,132 

This volume represents 56.42 percent of the total 
859,784 daily Boston Elevated and independent bus 
passenger trips made within the study area, exclu- 
sive of intra-zone movement. 

These bands do not show trip lengths nor do 
they indicate exact locations of Boston Elevated or 
independent bus routes. Each band is merely a 
grouping of the various desire lines, along a like 
direction, into a band showing that directional 
desire. 



31 



PLATE 17 



MAJOR DESIRE LINES 

Railroad Passengers 

A composite map showing major directional desire 
lines of travel for railroad passengers. The volumes 
as shown by width of bands are relative only and 
represent such passenger trips as fall within rather 
close limits along the direction of the major desire 
lines. The six major desire lines represent 41,995 
daily inter-zone trips which is 86.99 percent of 
48,274 daily railroad passenger trips made within 
the study area. 

These bands do not show trip lengths nor do 
they establish the most feasible location for trans- 
portation routes. Each band is merely a grouping 
of the various desire lines, along a like direction, 
into a band showing that directional desire. 




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32 




PLATE 18 

ORIGINS AND DESTINATIONS 
BY ZONES 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Presentation of the number of all types of motor 
vehicles that have origins and destinations in each 
zone. 

The length of each bar represents to scale the 
total number of daily origins and destinations for 
all types of motor vehicles, the solid lower portion 
representing the number of daily truck trips with 
origins and destinations in each zone. 












33 



PLATE 19 

ORIGINS AND DESTINATIONS 
BY ZONES 

Mass Transportation 

Graphic presentation of the number of Boston El- 
evated and independent bus and railroad passengers 
that have origins and destinations in each zone. 

The length of each bar represents to scale the 
total number of daily origins and destinations for 
Boston Elevated, independent bus, and railroad 
passengers, while the solid lower portion of each 
bar represents the total daily origins and destina- 
tions by railroad passengers alone. 





















34 






TRIPS PER 24 HOURS 



PLATE 20 



TRIPS BETWEEN 
DOWNTOWN BOSTON AND AREA 1 

All Types oj Motor Vehicles 

Dispersion of the total daily movement of all types 
of motor vehicles between zones of the downtown 
area and Weymouth, Braintree, Quincy, Milton, 
Dorchester, and Roxbury plus the trips between the 
downtown area and the 12 roadside interview sta- 
tions located at the boundary lines of these 
localities. 

The greatest width of the band represents to scale 
25,002 total daily trips. The smaller scaled tentacles 
indicate the dispersion of these daily trips to the 
zones of the downtown area. 

The locations of the 12 roadside interview sta- 
tions and movement between these stations and the 
downtown area are as follows: 



Station 

Number Location 


Located at 
Boundary of Trips 


Percent 


35 


Route 138 


Milton 1,749 


26.01 


36 


Route 128 


Mil ton 90 


1.34 


37 


Route 28 


Quincy 1,588 


23.61 


38 


North Street 


Randolph 452 


6.72 


39 


Route 37 


Braintree 189 


2.81 


40 


Route 18 


Weymouth. 401 


5.96 


41 


Union Street 


Weymouth 239 


3.55 


42 


Route 128 


Weymouth 139 


2.07 


43 


Route 3 


Weymouth 502 


7.47 


44 


High Street 


Weymouth 56 


0.83 


45 


Fort Hill Street 


Hingham 85 


1.26 


46 


Route 3 A 


Weymouth 1,235 


18.37 



Total 6,725 100.00 



35 



PLATE 21 



TRIPS BETWEEN 
DOWNTOWN BOSTON AND AREA 2 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Dispersion of the total daily movement of all types 
of motor vehicles between zones of the downtown 
area and Dedham, Jamaica Plain, West Roxbury, 
and Hyde Park, plus the trips between the down- 
town area and the six roadside interview stations 
located at the boundary lines of these localities. 

The greatest width of the band represents to scale 
19,453 total daily trips. The smaller scaled tentacles 
indicate the dispersion of these daily trips to the 
/ones ol the downtown area. 

The locations of the six roadside interview sta- 
tions and movement between these stations and the 
downtown area is as follows: 



Station 

Number Location 


Located at 
Boundary of 


Trips 


Percent 


29 Great Plain Ro;i<l 


Need ha in 


235 


8.01 


30 Route 135 


Need ham 


17 


0.58 


31 High Street, Route 109 


Dedham 


675 


23.01 


32 Washington Street, Route 1A 


Dedham 


639 


21.78 


33 Providence Pike, Route 1 


Dedham 


1,293 


44.07 


31 last Street 


Dedham 


75 


2.55 




Total 


2,934 


100.00 



36 





TR.PS PER 2 4 HOURS 




PLATE 2 2 

TRIPS BETWEEN 
DOWNTOWN BOSTON AND AREA 3 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Dispersion of the total daily movement of all types 
of motor vehicles between zones of the downtown 
area and Allston, Brighton, Brookline, Newton, 
Waltham, and Watertown plus the trips between 
the downtown area and the eight roadside inter- 
view stations located at the boundary lines of these 
localities. 

The greatest width of the band represents to scale 
42,127 total daily trips. The smaller scaled tentacles 
indicate the dispersion of these daily trips to the 
zones of the downtown area. 

The locations of the eight roadside interview sta- 
tions and movement between these stations and the 
downtown area is as follows: 



Station 

Number Location 


Located at 
Boundary of 


Trips 


Percent 


21 Route 128 


Waltham 


68 


0.90 


22 Route 117 


Waltham 


208 


2.76 


23 Route 20 


Waltham 


587 


7.80 


24 Route 30 


Newton 


400 


5.31 


25 Washington Street 


Newton 


516 


6.85 


26 Route 9 


Newton 


4,792 


63.62 


27 Central Avenue 


Needham 


95 


1.26 


28 Route 128 


Newton 


866 


11.50 



Total 7,532 100.00 



37 



PLATE 23 



TRIPS BETWEEN 
DOWNTOWN BOSTON AND AREA 4 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Dispersion of the total daily movement of all types 
of motor vehicles between zones of the downtown 
area and Arlington, Belmont, Cambridge, Medford, 
Somerville, and Winchester plus the trips between 
the downtown area and the nine roadside interview 
stations located at the boundary lines of these local- 
ities. 

The greatest width of the band represents to scale 
29,668 total daily trips. The smaller scaled tentacles 
indicate the dispersion of these daily trips to the 
zones of the downtown area. 

The locations of the nine roadside interview sta- 
tions and movement between these stations and the 
downtown area is as follows: 



Station 

Number Location 


Located at 
Boundary of Trips 


Percent 


12 


Woodland Road 


Medford 136 


1.78 


13 


Route 28 


Medford 3,012 


39.37 


14 


Marble Street 


Stoneham 119 


1.56 


15 


Washington Street 


Winchester 105 


1.37 


16 


Main Street, Route 38 


Winchester 701 


9.16 


17 


Cambridge Street, Route 3 


Winchester 818 


10.69 


18 


Summer Street, Route 2A 


Arlington 108 


1.41 


19 


Massachusetts Avenue 


Arlington 336 


4.39 


20 


Concord Pike, Route 2 


Arlington 2,316 


30.27 



Total 7,651 100.00 



38 





10,000 

a v oo o}.;V<-.-,j 



TRIPS PER Z4 HOURS 





e, ooo [ ■;■;.;.;. 



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PLATE 24 



TRIPS BETWEEN 
DOWNTOWN BOSTON AND AREA 5 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Dispersion of the total daily movement of all types 
of motor vehicles between zones of the downtown 
area and Charlestown, Everett, Maiden, and Mel- 
rose plus the trips between the downtown area and 
the three roadside interview stations located at the 
boundary lines of these localities. 

The greatest width of the band represents to scale 
9,999 total daily trips. The smaller scaled tentacles 
indicate the dispersion of these daily trips to the 
zones of the downtown area. 

The locations of the three roadside interview sta- 
tions and movement between these stations and the 
downtown area is as follows: 



Station 

Number Location 


Located at 
Boundary of 


Trips 


Percent 


9 Main Street 


Melrose 


558 


37.23 


10 Franklin Street 


Melrose 


32 


2.13 


1 1 Lynn Fells Parkway 


Melrose 


909 


60.64 



Total 1,499 100.00 



TRIPS PER 24 HOURS 



39 



PLATE 25 



TRIPS BETWEEN 
DOWNTOWN BOSTON AND AREA 6 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Dispersion of the total daily movement of all types 
of motor vehicles between zones of the downtown 
area and Chelsea, Lynn, Revere, Saugus, East Bos- 
ton, and Winthrop plus the trips between the down- 
town area and the nine roadside interview stations 
located at the boundary lines of these localities. 

The greatest width of the band represents to scale 
13,581 total daily trips. The smaller scaled tentacles 
indicate the dispersion of these daily trips to the 
zones of the downtown area. 

The locations of the nine roadside interview sta- 
tions and movement between these stations and the 
downtown area is as follows: 



Station 


Located at 






Number Location 


Boundary of 


Trips 


Percent 


1 Route 129 


Lynn 


487 


13.53 


2 Route 1A 


Lynn 


581 


16.14 


3 Essex Street 


Lynn 


65 


1.81 


4 Route 107 


Lynn 


461 


12.81 


5 Lynn Street 


Pea body 


138 


3.83 


6 Lynnfield Street 


Lynn 


17 


0.47 


7 Route 1 


Saugus 


1,654 


45.94 


8 Water Street, Route 129 


Saugus 


48 


1.33 


47 Nahant Road 


Nahant 


149 


4.14 



Total 3,600 100.00 



40 



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TRIPS PER 24 HOURS 




40 00 ( /"• 



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TRIPS PER 24 HOURS 



PLATE 26 



TRIPS BETWEEN 
DOWNTOWN BOSTON AND AREA 7 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Dispersion of the total daily movement of all types 
of motor vehicles between zones of the downtown 
area and South Boston. There were no roadside 
interview stations located in South Boston. 

The greatest width of the band represents to scale 
8,095 total daily trips. The smaller scaled tentacles 
indicate the dispersion of these daily trips to the 
zones of the downtown area. 




41 



PLATE 27 



TRIPS WITH ORIGINS OR 

DESTINATIONS IN EACH 

SECTOR OF DOWNTOWN BOSTON 

All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Numbi r of daily trips by all types of motor vehicles 
that have origin or destination in each sector of the 
downtown area. The total trips shown are 191,591 
and include movement from zones to the downtown 
area, roadside stations to the downtown area and 
the intra-downtown area movement. 



42 




3 _ BOO 



tpOO»' 



100 500 1000 *00C 10,000 







. 



THE EXPRESSWAY SYSTEM 



L HE TRAFFIC ANALYSIS HAS SHOWN THAT A NUMBE 

of well defined major desire lines of travel exist in the Boston 
Metropolitan Area. To serve the present and the future traffic 
along these travel lines a system of expressways has been de- 
veloped to form the backbone of the highway transportation net- 
work. The data collected from the origin and destination survey 
have been used in the analysis of the proposed system of express- 
ways to determine the location of the facilities which will meet 
the needs of the greatest number of motorists within and passing 
through the study areas. In selecting routes for analysis to deter- 
mine the amount of traffic and the service which would be 
rendered, eight radial routes closely conforming to the major 
directional lines of travel have been chosen, as shown on Page 50. 
Deviations from these direct lines of travel have been imposed 
in several instances, however, by such practical considerations as 
bays, hills, or highly developed communities. 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

In developing the system it was necessary to make a thor- 
ough study of existing highways in order to analyze these facil- 
ities as feeders or supplemental routes, thus minimizing the num- 
ber of expressways ultimately required to serve indicated traffic 
volumes. In this connection the expressways have generally been 
located where they will not parallel or compete with existing 
adequate highways. The system has been so located as to pro- 




:1c for proper connections between the various routes and the 
existing and planned state and federal highways as the latter ap- 
proach and penetrate the Metropolitan Area. ~* 

Four of the expressways will comprise parfs of the proposed 
forty thousand mile network of interstate highways to serve the 
entire United States. This system was originally proposed by the 
National Interregional Highway Committee and reported to the 
President of the United States in January 1944. It was approved 
by the several state highway departments and the Administrator 
of the Public Roads Administration, Federal Works Agency, on 
August 2, 1947. The recommended system is designed to fulfill 
the needs of interstate and intercity highway transportation nec- 
essary to the future economic welfare and defense of the nation. 
Under such a program the Boston area would be served by U. S. 
Route 1 to the south via Providence, U. S. Route 20 to the west, 
thru Springfield, U. S. Route 3 thru Lowell to the northwest, and 
by U. S. 1 to the north thru Newburyport. The present loca- 
tions of these four routes are shown on Plate 1. They must be 
improved and, in most cases, relocated before they will conform 
with interstate standards of design for capacity, sight distances, 
grades and, primarily, limitation of access. 

Since these highways have generally been found to be in- 
adequate to carry heavy volumes of traffic, it is important that 
urban sections of the interstate system be developed first. There- 



43 



fore, Federal funds have been appropriated to aid in the con- 
struction of such urban portions of these routes. To qualify for 
these funds such highways must be designed and built to high 
standards as limited access highways or expressways. 

In general the expressways will require rights-of-way from 
two hundred to three hundred feet wide. Locations have been 
selected, therefore where such takings of real estate will not entail 
prohibitive cost. Long sections of sparsely developed property 
have been found for this purpose. Where populated areas must 
be traversed, the routes have generally been located in neigh- 
borhoods where real estate values are now low and where they 
are still declining. The new service provided by the expressways 
should arrest the deterioration of such neighborhoods and aid 
in their rehabilitation. Further studies were made of new resi- 
dential and industrial developments and population trends with- 
in the areas traversed to determine the effect of these items upon 
the traffic potentialities and utility of each route. In laying out 
the system of expressways, special consideration has been given 
to the need for constructing each route in stages over a period 
of years. Under such a program each unit as constructed should 
serve as a needed and efficient traffic artery while the balance of 
the system is being completed. 

A further consideration in locating the master expressway 
system involved a s<udy of other forms of transportation and 
plans for their improvement and extensions, in order to provide 
one integrated transportation system rather than competing or 
parallel systems. 

The locations shown for the various expressways on the 
large folded map in the back of this report and on the plan and 
profile sheets appended hereto are the result of preliminary sur- 
veys only. Final studies of the individual routes required for 
design purposes may lead to deviations in alignments as great as 
several hundred feet from those shown herein. It is certain, 
however, that alignments in the general locations indicated can 



be found for expressways conforming with all of the basic design 
standards. 

DESIGN STANDARDS 

Basic standards utilized in the location and design of the 
expressway system are in conformity with those proposed and 
adopted by Federal and State Governments for use on the inter- 
state highway system. While conformance with these standards 
is recommended by the interregional committee as a condition 
precedent to cooperation on the part of the Federal Government 
in the construction of any route forming a link in the system, 
nevertheless the committee has recognized that in certain in- 
stances, topography, property values, or other controlling fea- 
tures may prevent absolute adherence to the standards recom- 
mended. These standards, as applicable to both rural and urban 
expressway design, have been found to be necessary in their ap- 
plication because of the large volumes of high speed mixed 
traffic using these highways. Many of these design features are 
also necessary in order to reduce the high accident rates now 
prevalent on most of the main arterial highways in the Boston 
Metropolitan Area. 

As previously explained, all sections of the expressway sys- 
tem have been selected on the basis of the limited access prin- 
ciple. Application of these basic standards and principles must 
be considered in classifying and designing expressways to accom- 
modate safely the traffic volumes which they must be expected 
to handle over a period of at least 20 years as determined by the 
traffic analysis. A study of these volumes has indicated the num- 
ber of traffic lanes required in the ultimate design. 

Because almost the entire Metropolitan Area is rapidly de- 
veloping urban characteristics, it is recommended that all ex- 
pressways included herein be designed to urban standards. The 
established criterion requires that where traffic volumes are less 
than 20,000 vehicles daily, two lanes each 12 feet in width are 



44 



required in each direction, separated by a suitable median di- 
vider. Where volumes are in excess of 20,000 vehicles daily three 
traffic lanes in each direction are required. 

In applying the limited access feature wherein right of access 
is confined to designated points or interchanges, a wide right-of- 
way is highly desirable. A width of three hundred feet should 
be maintained wherever feasible in order to provide ample room 
for pavement, shoulders, side slopes, service roads, landscaped 
areas, and interchange ramps. A typical cross section illustrating 
these features is shown herewith. The section contains six 12 
foot traffic lanes separated by a median strip of varying width. 
Four-lane sections are of similar design. Flanking the pavements 
will be two 12-foot shoulders designed to accommodate heavy 
disabled vehicles. Surface drainage will be cared for in general 
by a storm water system, collecting water from curb inlets. To 
accommodate the heavy volume of mixed traffic, the designs in- 
corporate pavements of adequate strength on a specially prepared 
12" sub-base. In most sections special consideration has been 
given to sub-surface drainage for the entire graded section, as 
well as for the pavement base. 

The accepted standards for horizontal and vertical curva- 
tures and sight distances must be adhered to in order to provide 
a highway which will safely carry the volumes of traffic expected 
at a design speed of fifty miles per hour. The use of spiral tran- 
sitions on horizontal curves is mandatory. 

Profiles are more or less fixed by the elevations of existing 
highways and railroads crossed by the expressways. However, 
where possible the fifty-fifty principle should be applied wherein 
the expressway grade is raised or lowered half the vertical separa- 
tion distance, and the intersecting highway the remaining dis- 
tance. In this manner deep cuts and high fills are minimized 
on the expressways proper. A maximum 3 percent grade has 
been established as one of the governing conditions in this study. 
Both vertical and horizontal clearances at all railroad and high- 



way separation structures should conform to the minimum re- 
quirements for interstate highways. The use of collision walls 
at all piers and abutments is recommended. Special architectural 
treatment of these structures should be provided and where ex- 
posed concrete is present the surface should be protected with a 
stone facing. A typical overpass and underpass structure together 
with service roads is illustrated herein. 

In many urban districts physical restrictions are such as to 
require the use of depressed sections, confined between retaining 
walls. A typical section showing this type of construction is illus- 
trated herewith. 

On certain sections including the Central Artery portion of 
the expressway belt explained hereinafter an elevated highway 
design must be utilized. A typical section of elevated highway 
together with access ramps is shown on an accompanying drawing. 

Ramp connections must be provided for egress and ingress 
at important intersecting highways. These ramps will connect to 
the expressway by means of long acceleration and deceleration 
transition lanes. The connection of ramps to existing streets 
must be channelized to provide safe turning movements at these 
points. At points where expressways intersect, directional inter- 
changes will be provided, designed for normal expressway speed 
and capacity. 

A typical "Y" interchange between three expressways is 
shown on the delineation. Where four expressways intersect, a 
directional or "braided" type must be provided as shown on 
another accompanying delineation. 

Because of the high speeds and large volumes of traffic on 
such expressways, auxiliary safety features must be furnished 
such as right-of-way fencing, guard rail, integral pavement 
markers, warning and directional signs, and roadway lighting. 
Large warning and directional signs must be placed well in ad- 
vance of the designated points because of the high speeds attained. 



45 







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300 Foot Width Of R.O.W. Preferred 




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47 




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•5 



EXPRESSWAY SYSTEM WITH RELATION 
TO MAJOR DESIRE LINES OF TRAVEL 



On certain long sections of the expressway system it may be 
desirable ultimately to install such conveniences as gasoline sta- 
tions and rest rooms. 

Landscaping of side slopes, medial dividers, and marginal 
strips will give the expressways a park-like appearance and absorb 
the hum of highway traffic. Adjacent property will be desirable 
for new buildings of all kinds, residential, industrial and institu- 
tional, because of the superior transportation facilities afforded 
and the attractive view provided. Special landscape treatment 
is recommended for the large areas at interchanges and access 
points to prevent erosion at these locations as well as for the 
aesthetic value. 

SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION 
OF ROUTES 

Based upon the above requirements and criteria, a complete 
system of multi-lane, limited access expressways has been devel- 
oped. The expressways are shown herewith in relation to the 
major desire lines of travel. A folded map in this report shows 
the entire expressway system. 

There are 8 radial expressways included in the master plan, 
all of which will connect to a central belt route. Exhibits are 
appended which show plans and profiles for each of these routes. 
For purposes of easy reference these plans are designated and 
shown on the key map of the area, illusrated on Exhibit 1. 

The flow map on Page 66 shows traffic volumes equiva- 
lent to those which would use the various routes at the traffic 
levels existing at the time of the origin and destination survey 
and also those at 1970 levels, which include allowances for in- 
creases due to induced traffic, population increases, growth in 
automobile ownership, and other factors. Traffic volumes on 
each section of the various routes together with the location and 
traffic movement at interchanges and the number of lanes re- 
quired to serve this traffic, are shown on Page 67. The method 



of deriving the traffic expansion figures is described more fully 
in the section on Estimates of Future Traffic. 

The type of design, location, and alignment of the various 
sections of the proposed expressways can best be understood by 
inspection of Exhibits 1 to 25 inclusive appended hereto. The 
need for the various bridges, underpasses, interchanges and other 
structures will be observed from a study of these plan and pro- 
file maps. Lengths of the various sections are shown under Esti- 
mate of Costs. Profile elevations refer to Mean Sea Level Datum, 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. For purposes of iden- 
tification the various expressways have been designated on these 
and other plates as "Southeast", "Southwest", et cetera. Each 
route will now be described in rotation starting at Quincy Bay 
and proceeding clockwise. 

SOUTHEAST EXPRESSWAY 

One of the most densely populated sections within the 
Metropolitan Area borders the bays and harbors from Boston to 
Quincy and the southeast. Two very heavy desire lines of travel 
are indicated within this area, one of which passes over Dorches- 
ter Bay and Old Harbor, and the other extends further to the 
west through Brookline. In order for one expressway to prop- 
erly serve both of these lines it is apparent that a desirable loca- 
tion should lie generally along the waterfront. 

Traffic through this area is presently served by the Old 
Colony Parkway, a four-lane facility restricted to pleasure ve- 
hicles, and by Dorchester and Neponset Avenues both narrow 
inadequate arteries, serving truck traffic. Improvements or ex- 
pansion of these latter facilities has been difficult because of the 
thickly populated areas through which they pass. Congestion 
exists which is further aggravated by a special traffic condition 
which is not reflected by the results of the origin and destination 
survey which determined travel habits for a typical week day 
only. The large resort areas lying to the east and south of Quincy 



51 



generate heavy peak volumes of weekend traffic which now must 
pass through or around this city. The traffic volumes indicated, 
therefore, do not give a true picture of this special condition. 
Volume counts, however, at strategic locations to the west of 
Quincy indicate that these peak-hour loads are of sufficient size 
and number to warrant the construction of a combination by- 
pass route south of this city to accommodate this resort traffic 
and at the same time intercept several of the main traffic arteries 
leading to the heart of the city. 

In selecting a route for the Southeast Expressway the utiliza- 
tion of the Old Colony Parkway for part of the distance has been 
considered and on the basis of stage construction it is recom- 
mended that those sections of this artery so designated should 
be adjusted to accommodate all classes of vehicles until such time 
as the completion of the entire expressway can be accomplished. 

A number of possible locations were analyzed for this ex- 
pressway, the first being directly through the city of Quincy. It 
was found that due to the heavy concentration of built up areas 
such a location was not desirable from a cost and right-of-way 
standpoint and would not serve the by-passable traffic as well as 
other possible routes. Several locations were considered through 
the Dorchester section of Boston but were abandoned for the 
easterly location because of high right-of-way costs and the fact 
that most of this section will be served by the Southwest Express- 
way. 

The Southeast Expressway is shown on Exhibits 2, 3 and 4. 
The northern end of the expressway connects with the central 
Belt Route via an interchange in the vicinity of Massachusetts 
Avenue and Southampton Street. From that point it proceeds 
in a southeasterly direction to a connection with the Old Colony 
Parkway just south of Columbia Circle. From that point it more 
or less parallels the New York, New Haven 8c Hartford Railroad 
to intersect with the Old Colony Parkway, Gallivan Boulevard 
and Hancock Street near the Neponset River. At that point a 



complete interchange provides for access to these highways and 
other local streets. The main flow of traffic from Quincy would 
gain access to this section of the expressway, via Hancock Street 
thru this interchange. 

The by-pass section of the Southeast Expressway begins at 
this interchange, crosses the Neponset River and passes through 
East Milton, West Quincy, Braintree and Weymouth to connect 
with the junction of state Routes 3 and 18 and future state 
Route 128. 

Intermediate interchanges are located at the following inter- 
secting highways, providing access to the various communities 
through which this expressway passes: 

Columbia Road Dorchester 

Freeport Street Dorchester 

Adams Street East Milton 

Cross Street West Quincy 

Furnace Brook Parkway West Quincy 

Center Street Quincy 

Independence Avenue Braintree 

Union Street Braintree 

As shown on the exhibits, parallel service roads are provided 
for access to abutting property and to intersecting highways cut 
off by the new expressway. 

A movable bridge is required at the Neponset River crossing 
to provide for the small volume of navigation using this stream. 
From this river to the Belt Route the expressway is carried on 
embankments of varying height to keep the grade line well above 
the frequent high tides. 

SOUTHWEST EXPRESSWAY 

Two very heavy desire lines of travel begin at the business 
district of Boston and extend to the southwest thru the Roxbury, 
Dorchester and Hyde Park sections of Boston and thru the towns 
of Milton and Dedham. U. S. Route 1 from Providence, state 



52 



Route 138 from Taunton and Fall River and Route 28 from 
Brockton and New Bedford contribute considerable traffic to this 
area. Traffic volumes appear to be insufficient to require the 
development of two expressways and therefore the selection of a 
route was based upon finding a location which would lie gen- 
erally between these two desire lines, serve the entire southwest 
area and not parallel existing usable arteries. 

Washington Street and Blue Hill Avenue serve the majority 
of truck, traffic through this area while a large portion of the 
pleasure car traffic uses the Veterans of Foreign Wars Parkway, 
U. S. Route 1. It was felt that a new location should be devel- 
oped between these highways to which existing thoroughfares 
could be connected to attract traffic to the new route. Because 
of the heavy concentration of population within the entire area 
traversed, selection of a suitable route was difficult. However, 
by studying a number of locations one was found where, by uti- 
lizing existing highways and vacant areas and, by traversing 
sections where property values were the lowest, it was possible to 
find a route which could be developed at a reasonable cost. 

The location selected as shown on Exhibits 5 to 8 inclusive 
begins at the belt interchange with the Southeast Expressway in 
the vicinity of Massachusetts Avenue and Southampton Street. 
The alignment is east of and parallel with Blue Hill Avenue to 
its intersection with Seaver Street. At that point the expressway 
passes under Blue Hill Avenue and follows the eastern edge of 
Franklin Park to the American Legion Highway. This dual 
highway is utilized for the expressway as far as Cummins High- 
way. The southern half of this artery is utilized as a service 
road and the northern half as one half of the expressway. 

From Cummins Highway the route follows Stony Brook, 
crosses the main line of the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
railroad, paralleling this railroad to West Street in Hyde Park. 
From this point it parallels the east side of Stony Brook Reserva- 
tion to a crossing of River Street. The route then generally 
follows undeveloped territory to cross over Milton Street, an 



important feeder highway, and the Dedham branch of the New 
York, New Haven and Hartford railroad, to its southern term- 
inus connecting with U. S. Route 1 two and one half miles south 
of Dedham. 

The route selected contains a number of curves, found nec- 
essary because of physical and other obstructions. However, the 
general alignment of the entire route varies only slightly from 
a straight line. 

Intermediate interchanges are located at the following in- 
tersecting highways, providing access to the surface street system: 

Massachusetts Avenue Roxbury 

Seaver Street and Blue Hill Avenue . . Dorchester 

Morton Street Dorchester 

Cummins Highway Roslindale 

Gordon Avenue Hyde Park 

Milton Street (Route 135) Dedham 

East Street Dedham 

In order to relieve existing traffic congestion on Blue Hill 
Avenue and to connect with important traffic arteries to the 
south via state Route 138, an expressway connection is provided 
from a point near the Cummins Highway paralleling Hunting- 
ton Avenue to connect through a two-way interchange with the 
existing six-lane Neponset River Parkway at the Milton-Boston 
line. By connecting the Neponset Parkway with Blue Hill 
Avenue, an excellent facility is thus provided to the south. 

The selected route should relieve the traffic congestion on 
Washington Street by diverting truck traffic from this artery 
destined for the center of the city and at the same time relieve 
traffic on Blue Hill Avenue. A large number of lateral feeders 
are available for draining traffic from the areas contiguous to 
this expressway. Several of these are included in the program 
for improvement of the existing street system. 

WORCESTER TURNPIKE, STATE ROUTE 9 

On the map of the Metropolitan Area folded in the back 



53 



of this report, the Worcester Turnpike is indicated by a pink 
line. This highway is the first radial route approaching the city 
north of the Southwest Expressway which is capable of handling 
large volumes of mixed traffic efficiently. Considerable thought 
was given to improvement of this highway to expressway stand- 
ards, but because of steep grades and right of way restrictions, 
this idea was discarded. Comparative cost estimates indicated 
that a more logical solution would be to provide an additional 
parallel facility further to the north to be designated as the in- 
terstate route to the west rather than to rebuild Route 9 as a 
limited access facility. 

In order for this artery to continue to serve its portion of 
the metropolitan area efficiently, it will be necessary to immedi- 
ately improve a short section near the Belt Route on a basis simi- 
lar to that proposed by the Town of Brookline. Such a plan 
would entail the building of a 6-lane limited access facility from 
a point where Brookline Avenue intersects the Belt Route to a 
point just west of Warren Street and Sumner Road as shown on 
Exhibit 9. 

The remainder of this route to the west will continue to 
serve as a normal divided highway. However, it should be 
widened at an early date to six full lanes with shoulders, as far 
as the Hammond Pond Parkway. The medial divider would be 
closed to prevent left turn movements. The construction of 
grade separation structures at Chestnut Hill Avenue and Ham- 
mond Street is recommended as well as provision for a service 
road on the north side as far as Chestnut Hill Avenue. 

According to the traffic analysis, this improved route will be 
entirely adequate to serve traffic until the Western Expressway 
is completed and in use. 

No detailed plans are presented for this latter portion of 
Route 9. However, the estimate of cost for this expressway in- 
cludes an item for these changes. Grade separation structures are 
now provided at the following street intersections: 



Hammond Pond Parkway Newton 

Parker Street Newton 

Needham Street (Route 128) .... Newton 

WESTERN EXPRESSWAY 

The heaviest desire line of travel in the Metropolitan Area 
is in the western section. This area includes Brookline, Brighton, 
Watertown, Newton and Waltham. Traffic in this area is pres- 
ently served by the Worcester Turnpike, Beacon Street, Com- 
monwealth Avenue, Washington Street, North Beacon Street in 
Brighton, Arsenal Street and Western Avenue. While several 
of these arteries are multi-lane facilities, they cannot be improved 
to expressway standards except at tremendous cost for rights-of- 
way. As previously explained, an alternate solution was adopted 
involving the construction of a new expressway thru this area 
to supplement state Route 9 and to connect with U. S. Route 
20 and state Route 30. It is recommended that this expressway 
be considered as the new limited access interstate highway via 
Worcester to the west. In this manner two parallel expressways 
should efficiently serve the heavy desire of travel from east to 
west. 

The selected route utilizes, for a great portion of its length, 
undeveloped areas along the Charles River, as shown on Exhibits 
10 and 11. Beginning at the Belt Route near the River Street 
Bridge in Cambridge, a new structure will carry this artery 
over the Charles River, and then after paralleling Western 
Avenue and Soldier's Field Road it recrosses the Charles River. 
Thence continuing along this river it crosses Arsenal Street to 
connect with North Beacon Street. The alignment then par- 
allels the Boston and Albany Railroad as far as Watertown. 
From Watertown the highway follows the southern bank of the 
Charles River to Bridge Street in Newton. At this point the 
highway crosses to the northern bank of the Charles River for a 
short distance and then returns to the southern side. It then 
continues in a southwesterly direction through the northern sec- 



54 



tion of Newton, crossing River and Lexington Streets and ter- 
minates at Commonwealth Avenue, Route 30, in the vicinity of 
Norumbega Park. A suitable location is provided near this 
western terminus for the future construction of an interchange 
with a recommended extension of this expressway to connect 
with either existing U. S. Route 20 or Route 9, whichever may 
be designated as the interstate highway to the west. 

Interchanges along this route are located at the following 
points: 

River Street Cambridge 

North Harvard Street Boston 

Arsenal Street Watertown 

North Beacon Street Boston 

Galen Street Watertown 

Route 128 — Waltham Street .... Newton 

River Street and Rumford Avenue . Newton 

Route 30 — Commonwealth Avenue . Newton 

While construction costs due to the number of bridges on 
this location are somewhat higher than on alternate alignments, 
large savings in right-of-way costs are effected by passing through 
undeveloped areas along the river bank. In this connection it 
should be noted that existing park drives border both banks of 
this river and in all cases where one bank is used for the express- 
way, an existing park drive remains on the opposite side. 

By connecting to the Belt Route as shown, movements to 
all parts of the Metropolitan Area from the western section can 
be facilitated. 

The utility of an expressway in this location is apparent 
when it is considered that population statistics indicate increased 
expansion for all sections of the Metropolitan Area to the west 
which would be served by this new artery. 

NORTHWEST EXPRESSWAY 

The travel desire lines as shown on Plate 1 1 indicate a very 
heavy travel trend to the northwest through Somerville and Arl- 



ington to the Concord Turnpike, and to the north via Medford, 
Winchester and Woburn. This section of the Metropolitan Area 
is very heavily populated, and at the present time is not ade- 
quately served by any highways connecting directly with down- 
town Boston. Present traffic from the northwest follows the 
Alewife Brook Parkway and Boulevards bordering the Charles 
River, in order to gain access to the business section via con- 
gested routes such as Commonwealth, Beacon and others. This 
condition further congests these surface streets already crowded 
with traffic from the western section of the area. It is therefore 
mandatory to provide a direct expressway connection between 
downtown Boston and the cities and towns to the northwest in 
order to remedy this situation. In developing this expressway, 
many alternate studies were made to find the best location which 
would coincide with the desire lines of travel and, at the same 
time, serve traffic approaching the Metropolitan Area from the 
north and northwest via the Concord Turnpike, U. S. Route 3 
and Route 38. The route as proposed and shown on the Exhibits 
12 to 15 inclusive, accomplishes this purpose in the most eco- 
nomical manner while at the same time serving the various urban 
areas through which it passes. 

Special consideration was given to a connection with a future 
location for U. S. Route 3 the interstate highway via Lowell to 
the northwest. It was first planned to bring this highway in via 
the Concord Turnpike instead of via Winchester as shown. 
Studies indicated however that it would not be practical to im- 
prove the Concord Turnpike to interstate standards as a limited 
access highway but that it would be more desirable to construct 
an entirely new route through Medford, Winchester and 
Woburn in order to provide these towns with a high speed lim- 
ited access facility and a connection to Route 38. Thus, this sec- 
tion of the expressway through Somerville will serve two areas, 
one contiguous to the Concord Turnpike through Arlington and 
Belmont and the other to the north via Medford, Winchester 
and Woburn. 



55 



This expressway begins at the belt route in Somerville near 
Washington Street and the alignment then parallels the Boston 
and Maine Railroad as far as Sherman Street and Rindge 
Avenue. At this point a short connection is made with the Con- 
cord Turnpike. The main route continues in a northerly direc- 
tion and crosses the Alewife Brook Parkway and Massachusetts 
Avenue. From this point it follows the east banks of the Mystic 
Lakes thru Med ford and Winchester. Many studies were made 
to determine the most feasible location that could be utilized in 
passing through Winchester. The one selected involves a min- 
imum of property taking while at the same time efficiently serv- 
ing the business section of this town. Continuing over Wedge 
Pond on a filled causeway, the route bears to the northwest to 
terminate at existing I). S. Route 3 near Bedford road. From this 
point it will be possible to further develop U. S. Route 3 to the 
northwest either along the existing alignment or via the Middle- 
sex Turnpike. 

A branch connection by-passing Woburn to the west leaves 
the expressway at Horn Pond and terminates at existing Route 
38 near Alfred Street, approximately one mile north of Central 
Square. At this point ample space is available for a future inter- 
change connection with the proposed circumferential Route 128. 

By paralleling the railroad through Somerville and Cam- 
bridge the location utilizes areas in which property values are 
generally declining while at the same time providing the most 
direct connection to the center of downtown Boston. By follow- 
ing the Mystic Lakes for a portion of its distance a minimum of 
property taking is required. The existing Mystic Valley Park- 
way can remain by extending the lake shore lines where neces- 
sary tor the proposed expressway. In passing through Winchester 
it is proposed to use a cut and cover tunnel for the few short 
blocks traversed by the expressway, to preserve the desirable 
residential area through which it passes. Both sections of the 
expressway further to the north pass through open territory, in 
which no problems other than terrain are involved. Along this 



expressway, ramp connections to important surface streets are 

provided as follows: 

Washington Street Somerville 

Porter Square Cambridge 

Massachusetts Avenue and Alewife Cambridge and 

Brook Parkway Arlington 

Route 60 — High Street Medford 

Bacon Street . Winchester 

Palmer Street Winchester 

Pond Street Winchester 

Pleasant Street Woburn 

NORTHERN EXPRESSWAY 

Traffic from north to south through the north central sec- 
tion of the Metropolitan Area is generally served by five routes, 
namely, the Northern Artery, the Fellsway west and east, Main 
Street in Maiden and Broadway in Everett. The Northern 
Artery, an existing six lane undivided road through Somerville 
connects the Fellsway routes to downtown Boston via the Charles 
River Dam. This highway presently carries the heaviest concen- 
tration of traffic in the entire Metropolitan Area amounting to 
an average of 50,000 vehicles daily. The west Fellsway is a fairly 
adequate four lane divided highway designated as Route 28. 
However, its utility is limited by the fact that portions of the 
route are restricted to pleasure car operation. The east Fells- 
way which connects with U. S. Route 1, the Newburyport Turn- 
pike, is two lanes wide and limited entirely to pleasure vehicles. 
Both Main Street and Broadway are very narrow congested 
thoroughfares which pass through the business and residential 
areas of Maiden and Everett. It would not be feasible to im- 
prove either street to increase its traffic capacity. Traffic from 
both of these arteries now moves via the Alford Street bridge, 
congested Sullivan Square and Rutherford Avenue enroute to 
downtown Boston. A location for an expressway in the north 
central area has therefore been selected, which coincides very 
closely with the desire line passing through the Maiden, Everett, 



56 



Melrose area. Traffic on the western edge of tfiis desire band can 
use the existing Fellsway and traffic to the east would use the 
Northeast expressway described hereinafter. 

Developing a location for this route involved a study for 
further improvements to surface streets via Sullivan Square and 
Rutherford Avenue as supplemental facilities to serve traffic from 
the southern portion of the Maiden, Everett area. The traffic 
analysis indicates a large flow of traffic via Route 28 which con- 
nects with important industrial cities in northern Massachusetts 
and major highways to Maine and New Hampshire. This route 
is subject to very heavy week end peak loads during the greater 
part of the year, particularly during the racing season in New 
Hampshire. 

Because this expressway is expected to handle one of the 
largest volumes of traffic in the entire system, it is recommended 
that it be led into the central area of Boston on an independent 
route and that no connection be made with the inner belt and 
Central Artery, in order to facilitate the distribution of traffic 
at its southern terminus. The existing Northern Artery because 
of its great width has been selected as being adequate for this 
purpose. Openings of the Charles River Dam Bridge should be 
restricted during rush hours because of the heavy flow of traffic 
on this artery. Surface improvements along its entire length re- 
quiring only minor land takings would bring it up to express- 
way standards. These changes will represent a less costly under- 
taking than the building of an expressway in a new location 
through Somerville. 

The complete northern expressway from the Charles River 
to its northern terminus is shown on Exhibits 16, 17, 18 and 19. 
The Northern Artery, the Charles River Dam to the Revere 
Beach Parkway should be the first section of this artery to be im- 
proved. The Fellsway from this point to the town of Stoneham 
can be utilized as the Northern Expressway in its existing condi- 
tion for a number of years until further traffic increases require 
the completion of the balance of this route. 



The new section of this expressway begins at the Revere 
Beach traffic circle and parallels the Boston and Maine Railroad 
through Everett and Maiden to the Melrose city line. At this 
point a short connection is provided with Main Street to accom- 
modate the Melrose and Wakefield traffic. From this point the 
alignment passes to the northwest to by-pass Stoneham and Read- 
ing to the east prior to connecting with Route 28. 

A short connection between the Fellsway at Spot Pond and 
the new expressway will facilitate stage construction should it 
be decided that the Stoneham-Reading by-pass be constructed 
first. At its northern terminus a desirable location is available 
for a future interchange connection with Route 128. Service 
ioads will be provided along the Northern Artery to effectively 
serve as points of egress and ingress to this improved facility. 
There follows a list of main intersecting highways where access 
to this highway is provided: 

Prison Point Bridge Cambridge 

Intersection with Belt Route (west 

bound only) Cambridge 

Washington Street Somerville 

Broadway Somerville 

Mystic Avenue Somerville 

Revere Beach Parkway Medford 

Medford Street Maiden 

Pleasant Street Maiden 

Main Street Melrose 

Wyoming Avenue Stoneham 

Franklin Street Stoneham 

Albion Street Wakefield 

Prospect Street Wakefield 

Route 128 (Proposed) Wakefield 

John Street Reading 

NORTHEAST EXPRESSWAY 

Traffic flow in the Northeast section is divided between a 
route thru Everett and the North Shore route thru Chelsea, 



57 



Revere and Lynn. This traffic is presently served by Rutherford 
Avenue via Sullivan Square, Broadway in Everett, Chelsea Street 
thru Charlestown, Broadway thru Chelsea and Revere, U. S. 
Route 1, the Newburyport Turnpike, Routes 107 and 1A. 

In considering the need for an expressway to the northeast 
it was found that one expressway between these two routes could 
serve this entire area. This location coincides with that now 
being developed for the new six lane high level Mystic River 
Bridge between Charlestown and Chelsea. By connecting this 
facility with the inner belt route and to highways to the north- 
east, a complete expressway is thus provided. At present a con- 
siderable amount of traffic which would otherwise use this pro- 
posed route travels via Route 1A and the Sumner Tunnel due 
to the congestion encountered in passing through Charlestown 
and Chelsea via the Chelsea Bridge. The desire lines show that 
when a new northeast expressway is completed a large portion 
of this traffic will be diverted from the Sumner Tunnel because 
of the more direct route provided. Thus the new northeast ex- 
pressway will furnish needed relief to the Sumner Tunnel. 

In order for this facility to properly service the northeast 
section, connections must be made to existing U. S. Route 1, an 
interstate highway, and to Routes 107 and 1 A connecting with the 
city of Lynn and resort areas along the North Shore. This is 
accomplished by the use of interchange connections to U. S. 
Route 1 via the Cutler Highway and by a branch connection 
with Route 107 at the Revere traffic circle, and a further con- 
nection with Route 1A. Plans for the Northeast Expressway are 
shown in detail on Exhibit 20. 

Route 107, a four-lane divided highway will serve as an ex- 
pressway connection for all classes of traffic to the city of Lynn. 
By continuing from the Revere traffic circle to Route 1 A, express- 
way traffic can thus reach the beach recreational areas and other 
North Shore points. As shown on Exhibit 24, the south end of 
the Mystic River Bridge Project included herein as a part of the 
Northeast Expressway, will connect to the Belt Route via a high 



level elevated highway over City Square. The estimates of cost 
include an item for revisions to the Mystic River Bridge ap- 
proaches as now planned. 

An examination of existing U. S. Route 1 from the new 
expressway to Route 128 indicates that, while this highway is 
adequate insofar as lane capacity is concerned, further improve- 
ments are necessary if it is to continue as a safe, efficient artery 
for the large volumes of high speed mixed traffic using this 
interstate route. Studies of various locations and comparisons of 
cost estimates have led to the conclusion that in this instance it 
would be more economical and expeditious to improve the exist- 
ing highway to interstate standards as a limited access facility 
than to construct a new modern highway in a new location re- 
quiring the taking of expensive rights-of-way. This can be ac- 
complished by acquiring the necessary property on one side of 
the existing highway sufficient in width to provide for service 
roads and other features necessary in the development of a lim- 
ited access facility. In so doing additional interchange connec- 
tions would be required at Lynn Fells Parkway and Broadway. 

Access points on the new expressway are provided in the 
vicinity of City Square for connections with the Charlestown 
Bridge, the business section of Charlestown, Rutherford Avenue 
and the Prison Point Bridge. 

Additional ramp connections are as follows: 

Everett Avenue . Chelsea 

Fifth Street Chelsea 

Washington Avenue Chelsea 

Revere Beach Parkway Revere 

Park Avenue Revere 

Squire Road (International Highway) 

and Route CI, Cutler Highway . . . Revere 
Broadway (Route 107) , Squire Road 

(International Highway) .... Revere 

North Shore Road (Route 1A) . . . Revere 

In assigning traffic to this route, predictions are based upon 



58 



the completion of all expressways in the recommended system. 
Volumes have not been adjusted to the possible effects of differ- 
ent rates of toll or lack of toll on competing facilities. 

EAST BOSTON EXPRESSWAY 

Two major desire lines of vehicular traffic terminates in the 
East Boston-Revere area. The volumes indicated are much 
lighter than on any other expressway section of the Metropolitan 
Area. It is also noted that movements are relatively short be- 
tween termini. Presently, this traffic is served by the existing two 
lane Sumner Tunnel, connecting through inadequate routes 
with the Logan Airport and Route 1A to the northeast. This 
facility is now overtaxed primarily because it is being used by 
traffic: detoured from other less desirable routes, as previously 
explained. Present plans however contemplate the immediate 
improvement ol connections from the existing tunnel to the 
Logan Airport and the northeast. This improved facility known 
as the East Boston Elevated Highway and shown on Exhibit 21 
is so designed that it will connect the Sumner Tunnel with the 
airport and provide a high speed expressway through East Boston 
to connect with the existing four-lane semi-expressway to the 
North Shore. 

While assignment of traffic to this route solely on the basis of 
the 1945 Origin and Destination Survey reveals that the traffic 
load on the existing tunnel will be relieved upon completion of 
the Mystic River Bridge, it is clearly apparent from study of 
plans for the expansion of both passenger and freight business 
and attendant facilities at the Logan Airport within the next 
few years, that there will be increased traffic demands on the 
Sumner Tunnel. Because of this expansion, the normal increase 
in motor travel, and a substantial increase in industrial employ- 
ment predicted for East Boston, such additional traffic volumes 
are indicated as to make the construction of a second tube neces- 
sary. This second tube should be in service as soon as possible 
after the airport expansion program is completed in order to ac- 



commodate the volumes of traffic anticipated. Traffic flow pre- 
dicted for the year 1970, based upon a completed expressway sys- 
tem and the above factors, will be adequately served by a four- 
lane facility made up of two 2-lane tunnels operating as a pair of 
one-way arteries between downtown Boston and East Boston. 

The second tube of the Sumner Tunnel should be reason- 
ably close to the present tunnel to simplify the problem of ven- 
tilation, supervision and other operating functions. The two 
portals in downtown Boston should be as widely separated as 
feasible, however, to avoid conflict between vehicles entering one 
tube and those leaving the other. Furthermore, the combined 
load of traffic to and from the two tubes should be as widely 
distributed as possible, so that the traffic flow in the tunnels will 
not be retarded by the capacity of a few narrow streets. 

A location for the portal of the second tube has been se- 
lected along the east side of Atlantic Avenue opposite Clinton 
Street with a branch on the west side of Atlantic Avenue along 
Richmond Street. The east approach to this portal will be ac- 
cessible to trucks from South Boston or from the South Station 
and vicinity via Atlantic Avenue without conflict with traffic 
to and from the Central Artery. The other approach to the 
portal will be used chiefly by traffic from the downtown area 
north of the Common and the Central Artery. 

This proposed location for the portal of the second tube 
will make it desirable, although not compulsory, to collect tolls 
at the East Boston end of this tunnel. This will have other ad- 
vantages, such as concentrating toll collections in one area to 
simplify supervision, and also make possible a toll plaza of more 
generous proportions than could economically be provided in 
downtown Boston. Minor changes in the design of the East 
Boston Expressway will have to be made to conform with final 
details of these toll collection facilities. 

The connections between the twin tunnels and the Central 
Artery have been so planned that the existing tunnel can con- 
tinue to be used for two-way traffic if the Central Artery is com- 



59 



pleted before the second lube is built. After completion of the 
second tunnel, either tube can be used for two-way traffic in an 
emergency, the proposed layout of ramps and surface streets 
being so designed. In addition, the portals and expressway ramps 
are separated by a cushion of surface streets, and escape routes 
are provided to give maximum flexibility during surges in traffic, 
accidents, icy weather or other abnormal conditions. 

In addition to the Central Artery connection, an adequate 
interchange is provided for direc t flow to the Logan Airport and 
a connection is made at its northern terminus with the existing 
McClellan Highway. 

BELT ROUTE 

INCLUDING CENTRAL ARTERY 

An analysis of all charts portraying traffic movements, shows 
a large concentration of desire lines tangential to the borders of 
the downtown Boston area. One group of desire lines runs from 
east to west, parallel to and north of the Charles River. Another 
runs from north to south in a location near the Cottage Farm 
Bridge. The logical shape for an expressway to serve the heavy 
volumes of traffic indicated by the desire lines takes the form of 
a Belt Route circling the downtown area. This route as shown 
on Exhibits 22, 23, 24 and 25, will serve as a terminus for seven 
of the eight radial expressways. These radial routes are fairly 
well distributed around this entire Belt. In this manner the Belt 
will serve a double function in that crosstown movements can 
be accommodated as well as local movements. Traffic destined 
for the downtown section can be distributed adequately from 
the Belt at points where it intersects important arterial highways 
and city streets. The Belt will serve as a by-pass of the central 
area for traffic east to west, and north to south, which now must 
pass through the city's most congested streets. Thus there would 
be removed from the streets of downtown Boston a large portion 
of the 15,000 thru trips which now add to the confusion in this 
area. 



In selecting a location for the Belt Route, a study of prop- 
erty values, access to important downtown points of origin and 
destination, and connections to existing important traffic arteries 
were prime considerations. Supplementing this route with an 
adequate system of surface streets described hereinafter, will 
facilitate the distribution of traffic from this Belt Route through- 
out the central area. 

The selected route begins at the interchange between the 
Southeast and Southwest Expressways near Massachusetts Avenue 
and Southampton Street and extends in a westerly direction via 
Roxbury Crossing to connect with Huntington Avenue, the 
Jamaicaway and Brookline Avenue. From this point it extends 
in a northerly direction to cross Beacon Street and Common- 
wealth Avenue paralleling the Cottage Farm Bridge across the 
Charles River to connect with the Western Expressway. From 
this point the Belt Route passes through Cambridge in a north- 
easterly direction to Somerville to make an interchange connec- 
tion with the Northwest Expressway in the vicinity of Washing- 
ton Street. From this interchange it travels in an easterly direc- 
tion paralleling the Boston and Maine Railroad, crossing its main 
yards to an elevated interchange just west of City Square, where 
it connects with the Northeast Expressway. The route proceeds 
in a southerly direction through the downtown business section 
to the point of beginning. This latter section of the route, 
termed the Central Artery, is described more fully under the 
section of this report on Downtown Boston Improvements. The 
Central Artery will connect with the Sumner Tunnel and im- 
portant downtown streets. It is designed as an elevated highway, 
a cross section of which is shown on a delineation included here- 
in. Ramps of adequate capacity, in locations strategically placed 
for the prompt and efficient dispersal of traffic will be possible 
on the recommended alignment. A number of alternate loca- 
tions for the Central Artery were studied but were abandoned 
because of high real estate values, inadequate terminal facilities, 
and low traffic potentialities, in favor of the selected route. 



60 





CAMBRIDGE INTERCHANGE 



61 



In order to distribute traffic to and from the Belt Route, 
eleven intermediate access points, in addition to those on the 
Central Artery, are provided connecting with the major arterial 
highways intersected by this route. The location of these inter- 
mediate interchanges is shown on both the Belt Route exhibits 
and the plate which depicts traffic volumes and number of lanes 
on the expressways. In this manner traffic can travel around the 
circumferential route to reach its destination rather than pass 
through the area on existing congested thoroughfares. In all 
cases interchanges between the Belt Route and the radial express- 
ways will provide for directional How of traffic at standard design 
speeds and volumes. These large interchanges have been located 
in all cases in undeveloped areas so that the value of right-of-way 
takings is held to a minimum. 

Interchange ramps connecting to important distributing 
traffic arteries are so designed and located that traffic can be dis- 
persed without the danger of congestion on the expressway belt 
itself. The Central Artery, designated as a six-lane divided facil- 
ity, is provided with a number of ramp connections to distribute 
the large volumes of traffic destined to the downtown area. An 
extra lane, in addition to the three lanes in each direction, is 
contemplated as an essentially continuous acceleration or decel- 
eration lane in all sections except where the cost of right-of-way 
for this feature would be prohibitive. The cost estimates for both 
right-of-way and construction are on this basis. The provision 
of this extra lane will ease the handling of the heavy volumes of 
traffic estimated for certain sections of the Central Artery, and 
particularly the heavy movements on and off the various ramps. 

A study of the 1970 traffic volumes indicates that daily two- 
way traffic on this belt varies from 41,050 vehicles near Memorial 
Drive to 88,700 vehicles near the Sumner Tunnel. While this 
Belt Route is somewhat larger than has been found necessary in 
other cities where comparable studies have been undertaken, it 
must be considered that an unusual number of radial routes are 
involved, that extensive areas of water are encompassed, and that 



several distinct business centers rather than the usual single 
center, are served. As previously explained the eighth express- 
way, the Northern Artery, will not feed into the Belt Route, but 
will connect to the downtown section via Charles River Dam, 
Charles Street and Embankment Road and improved surface 
streets thru downtown Boston. In this manner, traffic volumes 
on the Central Artery can be held down to a practical maximum. 

EMBANKMENT ROAD EXTENSION 

The traffic analysis indicates a very heavy desire line parallel- 
ing the Charles River Basin. Much of this traffic is predomi- 
nantly local in character, and is now using Commonwealth Ave- 
nue and Beacon Street. There is considerable cross conflict on 
these streets which delays the major stream of traffic moving east 
and west. To improve this situation the Metropolitan District 
Commission has proposed the construction of a new facility, a 
six-lane divided highway of modified limited access design for the 
use of passenger automobiles. This plan includes the extension 
of the existing Embankment Road along the Charles River as 
far as Bay State Road near the Cottage Farm Bridge. This proj- 
ect, in supplementing the Belt Route, will serve a useful function 
in moving traffic between downtown Boston and areas which 
cannot otherwise be served by existing highways or the express- 
ways proposed and it is recommended that it be included as 
an essential part of the Master Highway Plan. Estimates of cost 
for this improvement included herein are based upon figures 
prepared by the Metropolitan District Commission. 

ROUTE 1 28 — 
CIRCUMFERENTIAL HIGHWAY 

The perimeter of the study area on which lie the outer 
termini of the radial expressways is approximately on the loca- 
tion of Route 128, a circumferential highway extending from 
the South Shore around the Metropolitan Area to the North 



62 



Shore. This highway is a project of the State Department of 
Public Works. Several sections have been completed as a four- 
lane limited access facility. Most of the route, however, follows 
existing narrow suburban roads at present. Plans of the Depart- 
ment include a new location for the remainder of this route to- 
gether with a program lor its ultimate completion. The total 
length of this highway from its beginning at Hull on the South 
Shore to Gloucester is over 80 miles. The location proposed is 
shown by a pink line on the folded map of the Metropolitan 
Area in the back of this report. Most of the route is in suburban 
areas beyond the limits of congested developments. The new lo- 
cation is such that right-of-way takings will be held to a mini- 
mum and the highway can be developed prior to further expan- 
sion of population outward from the Metropolitan Area. This 



highway should serve a useful purpose in connecting the various 
radial expressways and other important arterial highways, as well 
as a by-pass and outer distribution route. It will provide ready 
access to the North and South Shore recreational and residential 
areas for traffic from the Metropolitan Area and the western sec- 
tion of the state. 

Available traffic data is not sufficient for the assignment of 
traffic to this route, therefore studies to determine the priority 
which should be assigned to its construction have not been in- 
cluded. This highway has been shown and described herein be- 
cause of its relation to the over all plan. However, estimates of 
cost have been included in the companion report on state high- 
way projects beyond the limits of the Boston Metropolitan Area 
prepared by the State Department of Public Works. 










63 



ESTIMATES OF FUTURE TRAFFIC 



T, 



HE VOLUME OF TRAFFIC ON THE PROPOSED EXPRESSWAY 

system will increase during the life of the structures over that 
estimated on the basis of the 1945 Origin and Destination survey. 
It is important to know the character of this trend to preclude 
the possibility that the highways will be either over-designed or 
under-designed. Projections of future traffic have been carried 
to the year 1970. 

The most important factors to take into consideration are 
population changes including the possible redistribution of pop- 
ulation, increases in vehicle ownership and increases in use of 
the average vehicle. A factor has also been applied to correct for 
the difference between traffic volumes as determined by the inter- 
view survey and volumes as determined at the screen lines by 
actual count. 

The population of the Boston Metropolitan Area as a whole 
appears to be relatively stabilized. Population changes in the 
sections served by the individual expressway routes may deviate 
widely from the average, however. The 1970 population of each 
city and town in the metropolitan area and of each major sub- 
division of the City of Boston has been carefully predicted by 
the staff of the State Planning Board on the basis of availability 
of building sites, present trends, known plans for industrial ex- 
pansion and other pertinent factors. This study has been in- 



valuable to the consultants in their efforts to assign future traffic 
to each of the various expressway routes. 

Other influences on future traffic volume, such as the Logan 
International Airport, have also been taken into consideration 
in arriving at expansion factors. 

Total vehicle registration has been increasing steadily ever 
since the advent of the automobile. The factor of "population 
per private automobile", which takes cognizance of population 
as well as vehicle registration, has been declining steadily and 
can be expected to go still lower as improvements in traffic 
facilities make automobile ownership more attractive. Trends 
in this direction have been extended to 1970 with the aid of 
forecasts by the Massachusetts Department of Public Works, 
Highway Planning Survey. 

The tendency throughout the country is for the average 
vehicle to be driven more miles per year as both the vehicles 
and the highways on which they operate are improved. The ex- 
tent of increases in mileage per vehicle per year in the Boston 
Metropolitan Area will depend primarily on the rapidity with 
which the recommendations of this report are carried out. 

It was determined from screen line counts that the home 
interviews revealed approximately 91 per cent of the daily ve- 



64 



hicular trips. Traffic volumes as determined for 1945 from the 
Origin and Destination survey have been expanded in the ratio 
of 100 to 91 therefore, before applying other expansion factors 
to estimate traffic volumes for 1970. All of these factors have 
been combined in the accompanying table to arrive at indices 
which, applied to 1945 traffic volumes, indicate the predictable 
expressway traffic in the year 1970 for each route. 

In assigning traffic to the different sections of the expressway 
it was assumed that the proposed routes would be used whenever 
time would be saved in doing so, even though the distance was 
somewhat longer. At the same time consideration was given to 
the continued use of existing good roads, and the use of other 



surface roads recommended for improvement or as new construc- 
tion. 

The accompanying flow map shows estimated volumes of 
traffic which would use the complete system of expressways at 
1945 traffic levels and also as estimated for 1970. 

Another drawing shows the estimated 1970 two-way vol- 
umes of traffic on each section of the expressway system and on 
each pair of access ramps. This drawing also shows the recom- 
mended number of lanes in each section of the expressway 
system. 

Following these two drawings is a list designating by num- 
ber and location the various interchanges and access points. 



65 



64,150 



6,200 







4.000 

7300 

'00 

■ MO. 

15,900 l=J 

16,000—lj- 6.450 

23,550 - • - 12.450 
H 

! i ® 



i-x 

o 



1 

23.750 — g 






38,300 






21.050 

7.500 

. 4,100 

a 

25.150 



41,300 



0E 
23,300 

m 



35.350- 



§_? ,8.600 

♦ID 19.500 

,100 

4,400 



33,150 -] ', •- 18,700 



40.650 

12.100 



,2300 
1 35.000 
Ug) «J00 

22.950 

63.S0C 



a '^ B v ;W 9 '' 50 

» t - J 36.650^ JO ^ 

^ [- 19.600 ^°VS 



m 



a 



a ™°fo m 

.'350 



a 



. 26350 IS 
- -27,000 



27,400 






9.60C 4.J? 

B 

B 4,900 
B ® 2.000 










17.050 
:'- 12,100 WESTERN 



26,550 
41,400 






41.800 

50,650 
EXPRESSWAY 



FOR BELT ROUTE 

8 EMBANKMENT ROAO 

SEE INSERT 



4* 



15.850 
33.400 



[13 



m 



BSE 



9.200:, 
400 



,10,500 



HO" 



23.500 



23.650 



17,600 
T6 • 



2«5O j0 - 



ffl 



30.450 
50 



a 

u fe3 



10,950 

a 









14350 -, 

IS i/ - 22,9 

- 20,150 ^O 



5.750 
V -24.300 



66 



5,950 

a 




- 26.500 




O 

a t 

-A 

21,900-- " ; - 10.200 




a 

20.100 — \<sr 9,35 ° "V 

\ 

a - 6.500 
14.050 ■^""§>ft&. 


€.050 

a 

13.050 




a 

11.400 

m 



36.200 






57.850 
41.000 



42,900 
4 1,500 

32,400 
2 7.400 

WESTERN 
EXPRESSWAY 

46.60C 

57500 S5 
18,300 m 

25.950 

27900 - 



BE 




' 10,450 
23,100 



' 72 l 75o" 0( i!!lr ft? 
E4.850 l±JJ 
15000 

7,400ffB ,\ 6 ? 7 50' 
8.650 !™ ■'; 13,150 ' 
£9 • - 81.250 gj 

6 750™, V 68 - 700 • 

88,500 
15,700 



15.200 li '°°- 1 

38.200 

(7JI5.800 



76030 
73.550 



17.100 



50,000 



'3.250 m 



_-21.250 

H 

i 49.450 



""W.600 



-12.000 

76,700 



- 48,800 
4 3.450 

,B w m 



24,500 „ 

a -; 

29000 



66,050 

60, 



60,000 






31.580 

34350 
30.450 



'0 






13i950 
51,000 



a 
49.000 

iocT 



a 

4£50 

48,550 

28.750 






ENLARGED DETAIL OF BELT ROUTE 






LESENO 
1945 



rz~\ INTERCHANGES 
I 5 I (SEE TABLE) 



- -; 



60,000 TRIPS PER 

24 HOURS 

1970 ESTIMATE I 



1945 ORIGIN AND DESTINATION SURVEY 

ADJUSTED TO 100 PERCENT 

AND ESTIMATED 1970 TRAFFIC VOLUMES 



7,600-4 LANES 
RT. 3 




17,900-4 LANES 
91,700-8 LANES 
38,400-6 LANES 



57,850-6 LANES- 

19,450-4 LANES - 
72,750-6 LANES - 



_y 



-46,100-6 LANES 
28,850-6 LANES 

NORTHERN 
^ARTERY 



__ 64,850-6 LANES 



53,300 
6 LANES 

MEOFORD ST. 

73,800-6 LANES 
y 26,650-6 LANES -^ 

5,860 13,150-S LANES 

7 840 -* RIVER ST - BRIDGE 

12 500-4 LANES--' 73,550-6 LANES 

zTzSO-BLANES - -'. 2e -«0-* >-* N ES 15.700 ~_ 

41,050-6 LANES 6 LANES 

"••|AL DRIVE 



45,000 MASS. aV| 6 ° 
SOlforeRS FIELD 2500 

16,740 RD.x 
48,600 — -y ' \_ 



6,950 



21,250-6 LANES 
43,250-6 LANES 
18,500-6 LANES ._ 

2,750 ~ 

AVE. 3,450' 

49,450-6 LANES — 

3,930- 

BEACON ST. 



74o 41,051 

MEMORI, 



--12,000-4 LANES 

£7, I 00-6 LANES 

14,900-4 LANES 

^:'52, 850-6 LANES 

67 750- 6 LANES 

"'SiSjSEWAY ST, 
- -81,250-6 LANES 
17,510 -33,400-2 LANES 

14,940 SUMNER TUNNEL 

22,390 88,700 

2.550 ~^6 LANES 



3,940 13,600 
,r"6 LANES 



48,800-6 LANES - 

BROOKUNE AVE 
10,420- 
23,500-6 LANES 



" 1 1.750 10,430 
38,880 - 
ARLINGTON 
8,050 ST. 
Jl~ -ASS '. 975 12,000-6 LANES 

RD CHARLESGATE 

21,900-4 LANES 10060 

60,950-6 LANES 
n 3,950 ,43,450-6 LANES 

MiJtington7v%. 

'4««n HAMPDEN ST.-. 
"■"°. 55,950- 6 LANES j'j 
1.280-^16,270' / ' , ' 

51,400- 6 LANES - , 

COLUMBUS AVE 4,050^ 2,140 
WASHINGTON ST. 

51.900-6 LANES '' 75 



6,050 - 



V 



/ 



-10,630" 
NORTHERN 
AVE 

^DlV^i6 4NES 

29,080 

— 76,700-6 LANES 

8,740 

OOVER ST. 

86,050-6 LANES 

32,250- 4 LANES 
51,000-6 LANES 



20,300-4 LANES' 



31,900-4 LANES 
. 52,200-6 LANES 
MASS, AVE. 



53,950-6 LANES 



ENLARGED DETAIL OF BELT ROUTE 



ESTIMATED 1970 TR A FFI C VOLU MES 

AND 

NUMBER OF LANES REQUIRED 

FOR 

EXPRESSWAYS AND ACCESS RAMPS 



67 



EXPRESSWAY ACCESS POINTS 



Number 
1. 

2. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



Number 

0. 
1A. 

2. 

3. 

3A. 
5. 
6. 

7. 



Number 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 



SOUTHEAST EXPRESSWAY 

Name Town or City 

Main Street Weymouth 

Union Street Braintree 

Independence Avenue Braintree 

Furnace Brook Parkway Quincy 

Adams Street Milton 

Gallivan Boulevard Boston 

Freeport Street Boston 

Columbia Road Boston 

SOUTHWEST EXPRESSWAY 

Name Town or City 

Route No. 1 Westwood 

East Street Dedham 

Route No. 135 Dedham 

Gordon Avenue Boston 

Neponset River Parkway Milton 

Cummins Highway Boston 

Morton Street Boston 

Blue Hill Avenue Boston 

ROUTE No. 9 

Name Town or City 

Route No. 128 Newton 

Parker Street Newton 

Hammond Park Parkway Newton 

Chestnut Hill Avenue Brookline 

Brookline Village Brookline 



Number 

1. 
24. 
2. 
3. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 



Number 

16. 
17. 

1. 

2. 

2A. 

3. 

4. 

4A. 

5. 

6. 



Number 
1. 

3. 
4. 



WESTERN EXPRESSWAY 
Name Town or City 

Route No. 20 Weston 

Route No. 30 Newton 

Rumford Avenue — River Street Newton 

Route No. 128 Newton 

Galen Street Watertown 

North Beacon Street Boston 

Arsenal Street . Watertown 

North Harvard Street Boston 

NORTHWEST EXPRESSWAY 

Name Town or City 

Route No. 38 Woburn 

Route No. 3 Woburn 

Pond Street Winchester 

Lake Street Winchester 

Bacon Street Winchester 

Route No. 60 Medford 

Massachusetts Avenue Arlington & Cambridge 

Route No. 2 Arlington 

Rindge Avenue Cambridge 

Porter Square Cambridge 

NORTHERN EXPRESSWAY 

Name Town or City 

Franklin Street Stoneham 

Wyoming Street Stoneham 

Main Street Melrose 



68 



NOR! HERN EXPRESSWAY— continued 

Number Name Town or City 

5. Pleasant Street Maiden 

6. Medford Street Maiden 

7. Routes No. 1 and 28 Medford 

8. Broadway Somerville 

9. Washington Street Somerville 



NORTHEAST EXPRESSWAY 

Number Name Town or City 

0. North Shore Road Revere 

1A. Routes No. 60 and 107 Revere 

1 . Squire Road Revere 

3. Park Avenue Revere 

4. Revere Beach Parkway Chelsea 

5. Washington Avenue Chelsea 

5A. Everett Avenue Chelsea 

6. Henley Street Boston 



EAST BOSTON EXPRESSWAY 

Number Name Town or City 

2. Neptune Road Boston 

3. Airport Connection Boston 

4. Porter Street Boston 



BELT ROUTE AND EMBANKMENT ROAD 

Number Name Town or City 

2. Union Park Street Boston 

3. Dover Street Boston 

4. Dewey Square Boston 

5. Northern Avenue Boston 

6. Sumner Tunnel Boston 

7. Causeway Street Boston 

8. Henley Street Boston 

9. Belt over Northern Artery Cambridge 

9A. Medford Street at Northern Artery Cambridge 

9B. Northern Artery under Belt Cambridge 

10. Washington Street Somerville 

10A. Medford Street at Belt Cambridge 

11. Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge 

12. Soldiers Field Road Boston 

13. Memorial Drive Cambridge 

14. Embankment Road Boston 

15. Commonwealth Avenue Boston 

16. Beacon Street Brookline 

17. Brookline Avenue Boston 

18. Huntington Avenue Boston 

19. Columbus Avenue Boston 

22. Soldiers Field Road Boston 

23. Bay State Road Boston 

24. Charlesgate Boston 

25. Arlington Street Boston 

26. Longfellow Bridge Boston 

27. Nashua Street Boston 



69 



Route Expansion Factors 



ROUTE 



FROM 



TO 



1970 
Basic 
Factor 


Population 

Factor for 

Tributary Area 


Route 
Factor 


1.77 


1.2146 


2.15 


1.77 


1 .0000 


1.77 


1.77 


1.2503 


2.22 


1.77 


1.0000 


1.77 


1.77 


1.3263 


2.35 


1.77 


1.0000 


1.77 


1.77 


1.1406 


2.02 


1.77 


1.0000 


1.77 


1.77 


1.0696 


1.90 


1.77 


1.0000 


1.77 


1.77 


1.0321 


1.83 


1.77 


1.0000 


1.77 


1.77 


1.1000* 


1.95 


1.77 


1.0438 


1.85 


1.77 


1.0000 


1.77 


1.77 


1.0000 


1.77 



Southeast Expressway 

Southeast Expressway . 

Southwest Expressway . 

Southwest Expressway . 

Worcester Turnpike . . 

Worcester Turnpike . . 

West Expressway . . . 

West Expressway . . . 

Northwest Expressway . 

Northwest Expressway . 

North Expressway . . 

North Expressway . . 

East Boston Expressway . 
Northeast Expressway 

Belt Route 



Embankment Road 



• The East Boston 



. Main Street, Weymouth . . . Gallivan Boulevard 

. Gallivan Boulevard Belt 

. Route 1 Cummins Highway 

. Cummins Highway Belt 

. Newton-Weston Line .... Hammond Pond Parkway 

. Hammond Pond Parkway . . . Belt 

. Route 30 Galen Street 

. Galen Street Belt 

. Routes 3 and 38 ' . Route 60 including Spur 

. Route 60 Belt 

. Franklin Street Main Street, Melrose, Spur 1.77 

. Main Street, Melrose, Spur . . Belt 

. McClellan Highway Belt 1.77 

• Squire Road Mystic River Bridge, including Spur . . 

.All 

.All 

area population factor of 0.8748 is increased to 1. 10 because of Logan Airport expansion and anticipated industrial growth. 



70 



Computation of Factor for Expanding 1945 
Origin and Destination Traffic Data to 1970 



Year 



Population 

of 

Massachusetts 



Vehicle Registrations 

(Vehicles Operating) 

In Massachusetts 

Autos Total 



Population Per 

Registered 

Auto 



Cations of 
Gasoline 

Per Total 
Motor 
Vehicle 



Massachusetts Cas 

Consumption 

Road Vehicles 

Only 



Expansion Factor Based 
on Gasoline Consumption 



For 1946 
Traffic 



For 1945 
Survey Period 



(add 000) See Note See Note 



1930 


4,249,614 


730,892 


843,988 


5.81 


627 


529,427 






1935 


4,350,910 


680,537 


785,672 


6.39 


745 


585,035 






1940 


4,316,721 


790,102 


903,423 


5.46 


793 


716,216 






1945 


4,493,281 


744,364 


861,252 


6.04 


619 


533,480 






1946 


4,475,000* 


835,428 


972,281 


5.35 


741 


720,395 


1.000 


1.118 


1950 


4,540,000 


950,000 


1,067,000 


4.78 


833 


888,000 


1.233 


1.378 


1960 


4,655,000 


1,052,000 


1,188,000 


4.43 


873 


1,038,000 


1.441 


1.611 


1970 


4,700,000 


1,119,000 


1,269,000 


4.20 


902 


1,143,000 


1.586 


1.773 



• Estimated or derived. All figures for 1950 and later are estimated. 



NOTE: Gasoline rationing was removed August 24, 1945, just prior to the survey period. Therefore, 1946, the first ration-free postwar year, 
was used as the base for expanding Gasoline Consumption. Based on Sumner Tunnel Traffic the ratio of the 1946 traffic to the traffic 
during the survey period was: 



Average Week 1946 



162,168 



Average Week of 1945 Survey Period 145,039 



= 1.118 



71 



IMPROVEMENTS IN DOWNTOWN BOSTON 



l\\ ELEVATED HIGHWAY ACROSS DOWNTOWN BOSTON 

has been discussed for more than two decades. Various align- 
ments have been proposed for this highway, which has been pop- 
ularly called the Central Artery. The consultants reviewed all 
of these previous studies and then made a number of their own 
before selecting the route recommended herewith. The differ- 
ences in this route from those previously proposed by other 
agencies are largely explained by the need for proper connections 
to the radiating expressways, many of which this report locates 
definitely for the first time. 

CENTRAL ARTERY 

The recommended route for the Central Artery crosses the 
Charles River just above the present Warren Bridge. See the 
folded map of Downtown Boston in the pocket in the back of 
this report. The traffic on the expressway at this point will be 
that from the Northwestern and Northeastern Expressways. 
The Central Artery will not have sufficient capacity, however, 
to permit traffic from the Northern Expressway to use the Cen- 
tral Artery for downtown distribution. 

The route of the elevated highway will cross Washington 
Street at Haymarket Square, follow Cross Street past the portal 
of the Sumner Tunnel and swing into an alignment parallel to 
Atlantic Avenue. It will pass Northern Avenue, then absorb the 



block between Purchase Street and Atlantic Avenue as far as 
Dewey Square. The route will thread between the larger build- 
ings of the leather district beyond South Station, will cross the 
northwest corner of the Boston Terminal Company yards and 
thence continue south in the block between Hudson and Albany 
Streets. 

The route will cross to the east side of Albany at Troy 
Street and continue parallel to Albany to the vicinity of Massa- 
chusetts Avenue where it will join the Belt Route. The Central 
Artery will provide connections, via the Belt Route, with exist- 
ing surface arteries and with the expressway routes. 

The most difficult problem on such a facility is to provide 
ramps sufficient in number and in the proper locations. Par- 
ticularly in Boston, it is necessary that traffic to and from the 
Central Artery be well distributed over all available downtown 
streets. Even so, these streets will not be equal to the task, and 
it will be necessary therefore, to make several important surface 
street widenings and other major changes, as listed on Page 77. 

This need for maximum collection and dispersion potential 
is one factor making it infeasible to use any route for a down- 
town expressway along the edge of the area, such as an align- 
ment over the present piers extending into the harbor from 
Atlantic Avenue. 



72 



The recommended route for the Central Artery would pro- 
vide ramps as follows: 

ON Northbound 
Dwight Street 
North of Broadway 
Dewey Square 



Northern Avenue and 

Oliver Street 
Commercial and 

Sumner Tunnel 
Hanover Street 

ON Southbound 
Causeway Street 
Sumner Tunnel 
Clinton Street 
Broad and High Streets 
Congress Street 
South of Kneeland 
Dwight Street 



OFF Southbound 
Haymarket Square 
Hanover Street and 

Sumner Tunnel 
Oliver 
Essex 

Oak Street 
Dwight Street 

OFF Northbound 
Union Park Street 
Atlantic at East Street 
Congress Street 
Broad and High Streets 
State Street and 

Sumner Tunnel 
Causeway 



The average ON ramp in the downtown area will have to 
serve approximately 700 vehicles in the maximum P.M. hour by 
1970, according to estimates of the consultants. The number of 
vehicles using the Central Artery and thus relieving the existing 
thorofares will be governed in large measure by the ability of 
the surface streets to deliver this many vehicles to each of the 
ramps. This means that traffic movement on tributary surface 
streets will have to be raised to a high level of efficiency. 

STREET WIDENINGS Street Under Central Artery 

A surface street under or alongside the Central Artery will 
extend the full length of that elevated expressway. This street 
will have a central mall or its equivalent throughout, as well as 
other types of channelization to expedite the movement of traffic, 
as indicated in the Exhibit. There will be a minimum of three 
lanes of moving traffic in each direction with additional lanes for 
stopping of vehicles at the curb where appropriate. 

This street will provide direct surface connections between 



the North and South Stations. Traffic between these two points 
now accounts for a large portion of the intra-area movement in 
downtown Boston. The street will also provide for surface traffic 
from these and other starting points to the produce and meat 
markets, the leather center, the wool district, the Haymarket 
Square area and other important commercial and retail sections 
along the route. 

In addition, this surface improvement will collect traffic 
from the other downtown streets and lead it to the expressway 
ramps. In the reverse direction, the wide roadway will cushion 
the impact on the narrow surface streets of traffic leaving the 
expressway. 

Portland Street 

It is recommended that Nashua Street be extended as a wide 
thorofare to Sudbury Street. This will be accomplished by 
widening Portland Street on the southwest side from Causeway 
to Sudbury. The Portland Street widening will provide good 
facilities from the City Hall Area to the North Station and via 
Charles River Dam to Cambridge and beyond. 

Sudbury Street 

The recommended widening of Sudbury Street from Cam- 
bridge Street and Scollay Square to Haymarket Square will com- 
plete a route from the Charlestown Bridge via Washington, Hay- 
market Square, Sudbury Street and Scollay Square to Tremont 
Street and thence to the Back Bay area. Also, with the Portland 
Street widening, traffic entering downtown Boston via Charles 
River Dam will be able to follow Sudbury to Scollay Square and 
thence to Tremont Street. 

Connections to Back Bay 

The Central Artery along Albany Street, south of Broadway, 
will be separated from the active Back Bay area by a district one 
half mile in width which now has no streets suitable for heavy 
volumes of traffic. It is proposed that this difficulty be overcome 



73 




CENTRAL ARTERY IN THE VICINITY OF THE SUMNER TUNNEL 



74 




LONGFELLOW BRIDGE INTERCHANGE 



75 



by extending four presently adequate streets in the Back Bay 
area to Albany Street and the new expressway by three separate 
street widening projects. The widening and improvement of 
Castle, Motte and Way Streets from Tremont to Albany will pro- 
vide a connection with Arlington Street under this plan. This 
will make a direct route for traffic from the vicinity of the Public 
Garden not only to the expressway, but also to the Broadway 
Bridge and to three important north-south streets between Tre- 
mont and Albany, namely Shawmut, Washington and Harrison. 

The widening and extension of Dwight Street between Tre- 
mont and Albany will extend Clarendon and Berkeley as a pair 
of one-way streets. Under this proposal, Dover Street, with its 
street cars and truck traffic from South Boston, will not be used 
for the distribution of expressway traffic. The Dwight Street 
improvement will be used as a two-way artery. 

The fourth of the Back Bay one-way streets, Dartmouth, will 
be connected to the Central Artery by way of Montgomery Street 
and widened Union Park Street. 

EMBANKMENT ROAD EXTENSION 

The place of Embankment Road in the overall system of 
expressways has been discussed in an earlier section of this report. 
The distribution of its traffic in the downtown area of Boston, 
however, is a subject to be covered at this point. 

Embankment Road will lie along the Charles River Espla- 
nade and will connect with existing Embankment Road in the 
vicinity of Arlington Street extended. It is recommended that 
traffic entering and leaving the downtown area on the new road 
be connected with the previously mentioned four one-way streets 
through the Back Bay area. 

The following pattern of access facilities is proposed in order 
to interchange traffic without unnecessary conflicts or hazards: 

From northbound Dartmouth Street to westbound Embankment 
Road. 



From eastbound Embankment Road to southbound Clarendon 

Street. 
From northbound Berkeley Street to westbound Embankment 

Road. 
From northbound Berkeley Street to northbound Embankment 

Road. 
From southbound Embankment Road to southbound Arlington 

Street. 

These proposed connections are clearly shown on the folded map 
of the downtown area in the back of this report. 



GRADE SEPARATIONS 

The extension of Embankment Road will greatly increase 
the volume of traffic on the existing Embankment Road-Charles 
Street-Nashua Street artery. It will become necessary, therefore, 
to provide new roadways and structures at the inner ends of both 
the Longfellow Bridge and the Charles River Dam in order not 
to block these heavily used river crossings. The map indicates 
expansion of the facilities at the end of the Longfellow Bridge 
to provide a complete traffic interchange, incorporating both 
grade separations and rotary control. See delineation. 

The problem at the Charles River Dam is less complicated. 
Adequate treatment at this location will involve, principally, a 
four-lane, two-way underpass between Charles and Nashua 
Streets. 

WARREN BRIDGE 

The new Central Artery Bridge over the Charles River will 
carry much of the traffic now using the Warren and Charlestown 
Bridges. The Warren Bridge is worn out and due for replace- 
ment or removal. The proposed six-lane expressway bridge, to- 
gether with the existing Charlestown Bridge, will furnish all the 
needed capacity for river crossings in this vicinity and the 
Warren Bridge will be needed no longer. 



76 



ONE-WAY STREETS 

Boston was one of the earliest and most successful exponents 
•of the principle of one-way operation on narrow streets. There 
is no need, therefore, to expound on the merits of the one-way 
street system in downtown Boston. A limited number of changes 
and additions to this long-established system will be desirable, 
however, upon completion of the recommended street widenings 
and construction of the Central Artery. 

The proposed one-way streets and direction of movement are 
shown on the folded map of downtown Boston in the back of 
this report. It will be seen that most of the differences between 
the recommended system and the one now in use have been oc- 
casioned by the need to expedite traffic to and from the widened 
streets, the new Embankment Road, and the ramps of the Central 
Artery. 

The primary example of this principle is the proposed one- 
way movement southbound on Tremont Street. Much of the 
advantage of the proposed widenings of Portland and Sudbury 
Streets will be lost if traffic using these thorofares hits a bottle- 
neck at Scollay Square. The logical continuation of these streets 
is via Tremont as a one-way artery to give superior accessibility 
to the retail shopping area. 



DOWNTOWN BOSTON 

Proposed Improvements to Existing Street System 

Portland Street — Sudbury Street to Causeway Street 

Sudbury Street -i- Haymarket Square to Scollay Square 

Scollay Square — Sudbury Street to Court Street 

Cambridge Street — Scollay Square to Charles Street 

Castle Street — Arlington Square to Central Artery 

Dwight Street — Warren Street to Central Artery 

Union Park — Montgomery Street to Central Artery 

Adams Square — Dock Square to Washington Street 

Street under Central Artery 

Longfellow Bridge and Embankment Road 

Commercial Street — Washington Street to Charlestown Bridge 

Beacon Street and Charles Street 

Boylston Street and Charles Street 

Dewey Square 

Miscellaneous Traffic Signals (approximately 25 intersections) 

Dartmouth Street at Boylston Street 

Dartmouth Street at Huntington Avenue 

Dartmouth Street at Stuart Street 

Dartmouth Street at Tremont Street 

Berkeley Street at Tremont Street 



77 



MAJOR STREET SYSTEM 



Otreets and highways have been selected to cover 
the entire metropolitan area with a network of high-type surface 
facilities. With minor exceptions, these roads now exist and can 
be brought to a reasonably high level of efficiency without ex- 
tensive takings of right-of-way or heavy construction. Thus, this 
network can be made to serve during the period that will be re- 
quired to finance and construct the comprehensive system of 
expressways recommended. 

NETWORK OF ARTERIALS 

Even after all of the expressways have been built, the recom- 
mended system of major streets will continue to fill an important 
place in the overall traffic pattern. These streets will collect 
traffic in the countless business centers and residential neighbor- 
hoods and carry that traffic to the nearest point of access on the 
expressway system. In the reverse direction the major street sys- 
tem will distribute the expressway traffic to the local destinations 
of the individual vehicles. 

A large number of vehicular trips made in the Boston metro- 
politan area will not be served by the expressway system. The 
major street system will supplement the expressways, therefore, 
in providing facilities for short trips as well as for both cross- 



town and radial movements in areas where the total volume 
of traffic is too light to justify the construction of a limited access 
highway. 

Standard Cross-sections 

Suggested standard cross-sections for the arterial streets have 
been prepared and are illustrated on Page 91. These standards 
should guide the building of center malls in wide streets upon 
the removal of street car tracks. This type of improvement will 
affect many miles of streets during the next few years. These 
recommendations should also be followed in acquiring rights-of- 
way for street widening projects so that lanes, center malls, and 
marginal strips will all be of ample width without being ex- 
cessive. 

Many of the rights-of-way needed to meet these standards 
can be acquired most economically by establishing legal set-backs 
for future buildings. Property can then be purchased gradually 
as funds become available, alterations to existing buildings will 
be held to a minimum, and the capacity of the arterial street 
system will grow with the inevitable increases in traffic volumes. 

There is no implication that these standards should be fol- 
lowed blindly. Variations and modifications may be employed, 
within limits, as dictated by conditions. A painted center line 



78 



may be substituted for a center mall, for example, if the specified 
width of roadways can be obtained in no other practical way. 
Safety and efficiency will be sacrificed in so doing, however. Lane 
widths can be narrowed only with a loss in convenience, safety 
and capacity; reduction in width of marginal strips will affect 
appearance; narrow malls will not provide the shadowing effect 
for turning vehicles. Such compromises are suggested only to 
meet such practical problems as cost, land use and stage develop- 
ment. 

It is proposed that the designated major streets be made 
attractive to motorists and safe to use by preferential treatment. 
The pavement on these arteries should be maintained in first- 
class condition, crowns should be kept low, and radii of curb 
returns at cross streets increased. Traffic signs, signals and mark- 
ings in conformance with the national Uniform Manual for 
Traffic Control Devices should be applied to the degree found 
necessary by competent engineering studies to assure the safe 
and expeditious movement of traffic and the protection of pedes- 
trians. 

Modern street lighting has proven effective in reducing the 
toll of traffic accidents. It is just as true, but less often empha- 
sized, that good lighting results in time savings for motorists and 
increases the capacity of streets. Standards have been established 
by the Illuminating Engineering Society for the lighting of ar- 
terial streets under various conditions of traffic volumes, type of 
pavement and other factors. All of the streets designated herein 
as part of the network of arterial streets should have modern 
street lighting in keeping with the Illuminating Engineering 
Society standards. 

The major streets will continue to intersect, as they have for 
300 years, in the numerous squares for which cities and towns 
in New England are noted. The consultants have made studies 
of many of these locations where serious traffic congestion is 
known to occur. 



Competent plans prepared by accredited agencies have been 
found for the correction of many of these problems. Construc- 
tion has been held in abeyance, in most cases, pending an oppor- 
tunity to review the proposals in relation to the Master Highway 
Plan and other major programs. This has been a wise policy, 
since many spots which are now scenes of serious congestion each 
day will be vastly improved by the construction of expressways 
or by other contemplated changes. For example, most of the 
traffic now plaguing City Square, Charlestown, will be lifted 
above surface congestion and carried on the recommended ex- 
pressways from the Central Artery to the north via the Mystic 
River Bridge or to the west through Cambridge. On the other 
hand, the present traffic problem at Sullivan Square will not be 
sufficiently alleviated by the expressway system to justify post- 
ponement of consideration for major corrective measures at this 
location. 

The modernization program now moving forward under the 
guidance of the Metropolitan Transit Authority also will elimi- 
nate many street traffic problems. In some cases the correction 
will come through the substitution of rubber-tired vehicles for 
present street cars while in others the extension of rapid transit 
facilities can be expected to reduce the load of traffic on streets 
paralleling the new rail facilities. 

The re-location of the market district, the construction of a 
union truck terminal and the provision of off-street parking facil- 
ities will all have their beneficial effect. 

All of these factors were considered in selecting the loca- 
tions, indicated by numbers on the area-wide folded map and 
listed herein, requiring such major treatment as channelization, 
provision for rotary movement, grade separations, or by-passes. 
In many instances it has been possible to make only general rec- 
ommendations, while in others sufficient traffic data were avail- 
able to justify the making of rather specific proposals. 



79 



LOCATIONS OF PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS 
TO EXISTING HIGHWAYS 



No. 



Location 



City, Town or District 



No. 



Location 



City, Town or District 



1 Southern Artery at Washington Street 

2 Southern Artery at Coddington Street 

3 Quincy Square 

4 Southern Artery at Hancock Street 

5 Granite Avenue and Adams Street 

6 Cummins Highway at Mattapan Square 

7 Blue Hill Avenue at Morton Street 

8 Roslindale Square at Washington Street 



Quincy 

Quincy 

Quincy 

Quincy 

Milton 

Mattapan 

Dorchester 

Roxbury 



9 Morton Street and Washington Street (Forest Hills 

Station) Jamaica Plain 

10 Columbia Road — Uphams Corner Dorchester 

1 1 Andrew Square South Boston 

12 Dover Street at Dorchester Avenue South Boston 

13 Broadway at Dorchester Avenue South Boston 

14 Egleston Square Roxbury 

15 Jackson Square Roxbury 

16 Roxbury Crossing Roxbury 

17 Brigham Circle Roxbury 

18 Audubon Road, Riverway and Brookline Avenue Back Bay 

19 Commonwealth Avenue at Cottage Farm Bridge Brighton 

20 Commonwealth Avenue and Brighton Avenue Brighton 

21 Commonwealth Avenue and Harvard Avenue Brighton 

22 Coolidge Corner Brookline 

23 Village Square Brookline 

24 Cleveland Circle Brighton 

25 Commonwealth Avenue and Chestnut Hill Avenue Brighton 

26 Beacon Street and Centre Street Newton Centre 

27 Newton Corner Newton 

28 Union Square Brighton 

29 Cushing Square Belmont 

30 Harvard Square Cambridge 

31 Central Square Cambridge 

32 River Road and Lechmere Canal Cambridge 



33 Union Square 

34 City Square 

35 Sullivan Square 

36 Arlington Square 

37 West Medford Square to Bennett Delta 

38 Main Street and Washington Street 

39 Broadway and Revere Beach Parkway 

40 Maiden Square 

41 Broadway and Beach Street 

42 Central Square 

43 D Street 



Somerville 

Charlestown 

Charlestown 

Arlington 

Medford 

Winchester 

Everett 

Maiden 

Revere 

Lynn 

South Boston 



44 Jamaicaway from Huntington Avenue to Arborway 

Jamaica Plain 

45 Cottage Street Widening — Lee Street to 

Jamaicaway Brookline to Roxbury 

46 Commonwealth Avenue Improvements Brighton to Newton 

47 Market Street — Coolidge Avenue Bridge 

Watertown and Cambridge 

48 Cambridge Truck Route Cambridge 

49 Route 60, Waltham through Belmont to Arlington 

50 New Prison Point Bridge Cambridge-Charlestown 

51 Rutherford Avenue Widening Charlestown 

52 Harvard Street Extension Medford 

53 Mystic Avenue from Northern Artery to High Street, 
Medford Somerville- Med ford 

54 Gravelly Creek Bypass of Medford Square Medford 

55 Revere Beach Parkway Bridge — over West Division 
B.M.R.R. Medford 

56 Revere Beach Parkway Bridge over Mystic River 

Medford-Everett 

57 Revere Beach Parkway Bridge over South Branch 

B.M.R.R. Everett 

58 Second Avenue Extension Chelsea 

59 Meridian Street Bridge Chelsea-East Boston 

60 Market Street By-pass Lynn 

61 Westerly By-pass Saugus-Lynn 



80 



Those locations which were most frequently nominated by 
interested agencies tor the attention of the consultants, and 
which study revealed to be more or less of a permanent character, 
are indicated by the numbered dots on the map of the Master 
Highway Plan. There are many more locations which were 
studied by the consultants but were thought to be temporary in 
view of the contemplated programs of highway and transit im- 
provements. 

Plans for all of the locations shown could not be prepared 
in the absence of detailed information on traffic and on existing 
physical conditions. The work of the consultants did not include 
the gathering of such information. Most of the troublesome spots 
have been the subject of intensive study by qualified agencies, and 
these studies have been carefully reviewed. A number of them 
are illustrated herewith giving credit to the originating group. 

The discussions of specific locations which follow are in- 
tended primarily to illustrate the range and variety of treatment 
which will be found appropriate to deal with the various inter- 
sections indicated on the map as the bottlenecks on the present 
and future arterial street system. 

Mattapan Square (6) 

An inexpensive plan for improvement of Mattapan Square 
is shown on Page 84. This plan includes elimination of angle 
parking, channelization of the intersection and installation of 
properly timed traffic control signals. The use of such expedients 
can effect remarkable results when skillfully applied. 

Morton Street and Blue Hill Avenue (7) 

Preliminary studies have been made for an overpass on 
Blue Hill Avenue at Morton Street. This improvement would 
cost approximately $500,000 and might also result in consequen- 
tial damages to property in its vicinity. It is recommended that 
a much simpler treatment be tried at this location before giving 
further consideration to elaborate structures. The suggested 



plan, illustrated on Page 85, contemplates simple channelization 
and the operation of existing traffic signals by any one of the 
several types of automatically or manually reset timers which 
adjust the signals to favor the predominant movements at various 
times of the day. Such timers also make special provision for the 
peculiarities of Saturday and Sunday traffic. Rigid parking con- 
trol is also an essential feature of the proposal. 

The Southwest Expressway will eventually relieve this inter- 
section of a large portion of its traffic, but turning movements 
will always be heavy. 

Arborway and Washington Street (?) 

It is recommended that this location be given intensive 
study by an appropriate agency in coordination with the Metro- 
politan Transit Authority which is preparing long-range plans 
affecting traffic conditions at this point. During the period that 
will be required to carry out these plans, traffic signals operated 
by a flexible timer should handle traffic in a satisfactory manner. 
Even with traffic signals, police officer protection will be required 
in rush hours because of the heavy pedestrian movements. 

Roxbury Crossing (16) 

This intersection will be called upon to handle more traffic, 
rather than less, by the building of the proposed expressway con- 
stituting the Belt Route. It is proposed, therefore, that the 
changes which will be necessary at that time to accommodate 
the additional traffic be made immediately so that surface traffic 
can have the benefits of the improvement at once. The plan 
consists basically of rotary control using existing streets primarily 
but also including a street extension which will ultimately be 
needed as a part of the expressway program. 

Park Drive-Brookline Avenue (18) 

A plan has been proposed by the Boston Park Commission 
for the treatment of the multiple intersections created by the 



81 



confluence of Park Drive, Brookline Avenue, Boylston Street, 
Fenway, Pilgrim Road and Riverway. A portion of Muddy River 
has been put in conduit toward the construction of this project. 
The plan consists primarily of two large traffic circles connected 
by two roadways bordering Muddy River. It appears that this 
treatment is adequate and well suited for the problem at hand. 

Cottage Farm Bridge and Commonwealth Avenue (19) 

This location will be relieved of a great part of its traffic by 
the construction of the Belt Expressway. It is recommended that 
vehicle-actuated traffic control signals be installed at the intersec- 
tion, in the meantime, to expedite the widely fluctuating flow 
of traffic characteristics of this location. 

Such signals will supplement the commendably efficient 
traffic officer regularly on duty at this intersection. Thus freed 
from the mechanical aspects of traffic control, he can give all 
necessary attention to turning vehicles and to pedestrians. 

Union Square— Somerville (33) 

It is the opinion of the consultants that this intersection can 
be competently treated by the construction of islands to channel- 
ize traffic and the installation of traffic control signals as shown 
herewith. Elimination of angle parking is fundamental to any 
plan for relief of congestion at this point. 

The Belt Expressway will later draw a portion of the 
through traffic from Union Square. 

City Square— Charlestown (34) 

This neighborhood is presently the subject of intensive study 
by engineers for the Mystic River Bridge Authority. It is antic- 
ipated that coordinated plans between this agency and other 
bodies at interest will be prepared. The solution must take 
into account the widening of Rutherford Avenue and the re- 
building of Prison Point Bridge as well as the construction of 
approaches to the new Mystic River Bridge. 



Sullivan Square (35) 

Studies are now being conducted by the City Planning Board 
in cooperation with the State Department of Public Works for a 
vehicular underpass at Sullivan Square. Final recommendations 
must await the completion of comprehensive traffic surveys, but 
one of the tentative solutions for this complicated problem is 
shown on Page 89. This improvement illustrates the type of work 
on the local street system which will not be made obsolete by 
the construction of expressways. 

Revere Beach Parkway, Broadway 
and Main Street— Everett (39) 

Various agencies have studied the problem created by the 
intersection of Revere Beach Parkway with Main Street and 
Broadway in Everett. An artist's conception of a preferred treat- 
ment incorporating an overpass is shown herewith. The impor- 
tance of Revere Beach Parkway as a major traffic artery and the 
present congestion suffered at this location justifies the rather 
costly solution shown. The usefulness of all of the traffic arteries 
involved will be materially increased by the improvement. 

Roslindale Square 

A plan has been prepared for correction of traffic conditions 
in the Roslindale Square business district. This incorporates 
parking control, provision of off-street parking facilities, traffic 
signals, one-way streets and a short extension of one street. This 
inexpensive and readily available solution is suggested as an al- 
ternate to a more expensive plan for the taking of right-of-way 
and the extension of Belgrade Avenue as a new thorofare between 
South Street and Washington. This latter plan was suggested by 
the Roslindale Board of Trade. The proposed Southwest Express- 
way will change the traffic pattern in this vicinity in that traffic 
now moving from Belgrade Avenue to Washington will then be 
primarily interested in getting from Belgrade to Cummins High- 
way. 



82 



The off-street parking facilities shown in the accompanying 
exhibit are those proposed by the Roslindale Board of Trade. 

Extension of Market Street— Lynn 

The City Engineer of Lynn has prepared preliminary plans 
for the extension of Market Street. These plans have been modi- 
fied by the consultants to conform to the recommended stand- 
ards for the major street system. In addition, channelization has 
been shown on the accompanying plan at each end of the im- 
provement. This work will make a major contribution to the 
relief of traffic along the most congested portion of Washington 
Street in Lynn. 

A by-pass route west of Lynn has been located as a result of 
reconnaissance surveys and is recommended as a part of the ar- 



terial street system. This general purpose highway would be on 
a new right-of-way through an area largely undeveloped at pres- 
ent. Through traffic would be removed from the congested streets 
of downtown Lynn to the benefit of all. 

Cambridge Truck Route 

A truck route in the City of Cambridge has been proposed 
by the Cambridge Planning Board. This would consist principally 
of existing suitable streets, but would also involve street exten- 
sions or widenings requiring additional right-of-way in five loca- 
tions and a separation of grades with an existing railroad track. 

The consultants endorse this proposal and show it on the 
Master Highway Map as an improvement to be made as a part 
of the proposed arterial street system. 



83 




84 



PROPOSED TRAFFIC IMPROVEMENTS 

MATTAPAN SQUARE 




PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS FOR INTERSECTION 
OF BLUE HILL AVENUE AND MORTON STREET 

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 



STREET 






LEGEND 

NEW CURB LINES 
PRESENT CURB LINES 
BUILDING LINES 
TRAFFIC SIGNALS 






NOTE NO MAKING PERMITTED WITHIN 
ONE MUNORED FEET OF THE INTERSECTION 
ON EITHER SIDE OF THE STREET 



85 



86 




PROPOSED TRAFFIC IMPROVEMENT AT 

ROXBURY CROSSING 




PROPOSED IMPROVEMENT 

BROOKLINE AVE. a PARK DRIVE 



87 




PROPOSED TRAFFIC IMPROVEMENT 

SOMERVILLE AVE. ft WASHINGTON ST. 
UNION SQUARE - SOMERVILLE 



88 




TENTATIVE PLAN FOR TRAFFIC CIRCLE AND UNDERPASS 

SULLIVAN SQUARE- CHARLESTOWN 

BASIC DESIGN BY BOSTON PLANNING BOARD 



89 




REVERE BEACH PARKWAY OVER-PASS 



90 



MAJOR STREETS WITH SIX LANES FOR MOVING TRAFFIC 






15' 


7' 


13' 


ll' 


i "'.I. 


20' 


ll' 


II' 


13' 


7' 


15' 




r 




67' 


to 


"i* i 




6 7' 


to 




; 








134' fz) 
























VJ 1 
















DESIRABLE STANDARD 
PARKING PERMITTED 



MINIMUM STANDARD 
PARKING PERMITTED 



* x y e 





44 134 



k 



(3l 



■ i i. i . i • i 



88 (68 



44 (34 



DESIRABLE STANDARD 
NO STOPPING IN RUSH HOURS 
NO PARKING AT OTHER TIMES 



MINIMUM STANDARD 
NO STOPPING IN RUSH HOURS 
NO PARKING AT OTHER TIMES 



CIRCLED NUMBERS INDICATE CORRESPONDING WIDTHS FOR FOUR-LANE STREETS 



91 




MARKET ST. 






PROPOSED EXTENSION OF MARKET STREET 

LYNN, MASSACHUSETTS 

A MODIFICATION OF A PLAN BY FRANK E. GOWDY, CITY ENGINEER 



92 



TRUCK ROUTES 



SPECIAL consideration was given to truck movements 
throughout the metropolitan area in the analysis of the origin 
and destination data as shown by Plates 6, 9, 10 and 12 in the 
traffic section of this report. The needs of commercial vehicles 
have influenced the selection of expressway routes as well as 
the development of a system of arterial streets. Provisions have 
been made in locating access ramps on the expressways, and in 
the development of other plans, for the movement of trucks to 
and from present and proposed truck terminals, market areas, 
freight terminals and piers. 

It is recommended that trucks be permitted to operate on 
every section of the proposed system of expressways. In estab- 
lishing priorities for the construction of these expressways, a 
high rating was assigned to the Southwest Expressway because 
of the totally inadequate highway facilities which are now 
available to commercial vehicles traveling in this general direc- 
tion. 

Many suggestions were made to the consultants for their 
consideration in planning better facilities for the heavy flow 
of truck traffic across Charles Street between Longfellow Bridge 
and Park Square. Most of these ideas involved relatively costly 
construction. It is felt, however, that the comprehensive pro- 
gram of other improvements recommended herein for the 
downtown area will make it unnecessary to perform extensive 
work in the vicinity of Charles Street itself. 




The extension of Embankment Road and its connection 
with the four. one-way streets previously described should at- 
tract almost two-thirds of the automobiles now using Charles 
Street, according to traffic analyses. Similarly, at least one-half 
of the trucks now using Charles Street will prefer to use the 
Central Artery, other sections of the Belt Route, or the widened 
surface streets after those projects are completed. 

In the meantime, Charles Street should remain a two-way 
artery for mixed traffic. Parking should continue to be pro- 
hibited between 8:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. and from 4:00 p.m. 
to 6:00 p.m. and this "all-rolling" regulation should be rigidly 
enforced. 

Truck traffic should also be permitted on Old Colony 
Parkway as far south as Callivan Boulevard until such time as 
the Southeast Expressway can be constructed. Improvements 
to Old Colony Parkway to fit it for this type of traffic can 
readily be made. 

Preliminary location studies have been made by various 
agencies for a highway along Gravelly Creek between Mystic 
Avenue at Brooks Park and the Fellsway West near Fulton 
Street. This would provide an attractive route for trucks 
around the section of the Fellsway from which commercial 
vehicles are now excluded, and at the same time would furnish 
a by-pass route for badly congested Medford Square. This im- 
provement is also indicated on the Master Plan Map. 



93 



PARKING RECOMMENDATIONS 



T, 



HE RECOMMENDED EXPRESSWAYS WILL SERVE THEIR 

intended function only if they are supplemented by adequate 
storage facilities to receive the vehicles as they arrive in the 
downtown area. 

The City Planning Board of Boston has recently completed 
a study of the economics of proposed new off-street parking 
facilities in Downtown Boston. This study is being used to guide 
the expenditure of a fund of $5,000,000 to secure sites and build 
parking garages which will then be leased to private operators. 
The studies indicate that unless substantial subsidies are fur- 
nished by governmental agencies, parking rates will range from 
forty cents to seventy-five cents for all-day parking. Your con- 
sultants confirm these estimates by recent studies they have made. 
The higher figure will prevail in most instances in Boston be- 
cause of the high value of downtown property. 

Motorists now parking on the streets of Downtown Boston 
would unquestionably be put to considerable out-of-pocket ex- 
pense if curb parking privileges were suspended. Much, much 
greater, however, are tire hidden costs to their fellow motorists 
and themselves, as well as the costs to the community at large, 
under the present intolerable congestion caused by curb parking, 
much of it in flagrant violation of parking regulations. Even a 
reasonably satisfactory solution of traffic conditions in this area 



will require almost complete prohibition of curb parking to- 
gether with strict enforcement. 

That this regulation will be a benefit, rather than a hard- 
ship, both to motorists and to downtown business establishments, 
is illustrated by the experience in Chicago. Complete prohibi- 
tion of curb parking in the "Loop" on January 10, 1928, resulted 
in a 32.6 per cent increase in the number of automobiles accu- 
mulated in the downtown district at 2:30 P.M. on comparable 
weekdays before and after the restrictions went into effect. 
Motorists found that the ease and safety of movement within the 
area more than compensated them for the cost of parking in the 
lots and garages which appeared quickly under private initiative 
shortly after the curb parking ban became effective. 

The first of the new garage sites selected by the City Plan- 
ning Board are close to the proposed route of the Central Artery. 
This policy should also be followed in selecting a number of ad- 
ditional sites. Other garages can appropriately be located along 
Cambridge, Portland, Sudbury and other streets which are or 
will be widened. In this way, traffic on the narrow streets can be 
kept to a minimum. 

The parking report prepared by the City Planning Board 
pointed out that there is a dearth of factual information on the 
parking habits of motorists driving to Downtown Boston. Your 



94 



consultants urge that a comprehensive parking survey be made 
as a sound basis tor expansion of the initial program for develop- 
ment of parking facilities. ' It will be imperative to have a broad 
concept of the size of the task so that plans will be neither 
grossly inadequate nor overly ambitious. 

On many of the arterial streets designated herein, parking 
will have to be prohibited in certain sections and at certain 
times to permit the street system to work efficiently. Detailed 
traffic surveys will be required before specific recommendations 
as to these regulations can be prepared for the several hundred 
miles of streets involved. Administrative agencies in the various 
communities have demonstrated their understanding of the prob- 
lem and the proper use of parking control techniques. There 
has been little opportunity in the recent hectic years to re- 
store regulation and enforcement to the high standards re- 
quired to move the great masses of traffic found in the Boston 
Metropolitan Area. Many of the cities and towns in the region, 



in addition to Boston, will find it to their advantage to make 
complete parking surveys and prepare long-range plans for pro- 
viding off-street facilities in their central business districts. 

There is an obvious need for a strong, well conceived pro- 
gram to aid the police in the enforcement of parking regulations. 
This is true not only in Boston but in essentially all of the sur- 
rounding cities and towns. No single measure will fulfill the 
need. More officers should be assigned to the parking phase of 
traffic regulations, fines should be severe enough to deter re- 
peaters and flagrant violators, and special parking privileges 
nullifying restrictions should not be tolerated. Property values 
have declined to the extent of millions of dollars in recent years 
and much of this loss can be traced to traffic congestion. A large 
part of the congestion is caused by illegal parking and, viewed in 
this light, the seriousness of the acts of parking violators is clearly 
apparent. 













3R 







95 



COORDINATION WITH 
TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS 




A 



COMPREHENSIVE PLAN FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE 

transit system is contained in the two reports by the Metropol- 
itan Transit Recess Commission dated April, 1945, and April, 
1947. It is assumed that this program, in essentially the form and 
to the extent recommended, will be carried out. If rapid transit 
facilities are not extended and improved, the system of express- 
ways recommended will be inadequate to handle the volumes of 
traffic that will be generated in the outer and rapidly growing 
portions of the metropolitan district. 

The expressways do not offer a rubber-tired alternate to 
railborne rapid transit. The vast number of people to be handled 
by public transportation would make such an expedient eco- 
nomically unsound. Furthermore, the downtown street system 
would be unable to absorb any significant portion of the number 
of buses that would be involved. 

It is recommended that express buses be operated from 
Chelsea to downtown Boston over the Mystic River Bridge and 
the Central Artery to an off-street bus terminal. Further study 
should be given to the need for express bus operation along the 



Southeast Expressway to supplement the Washington Street rapid 
transit subway when use of this latter facility is materially in- 
creased by proposed rail rapid transit extensions into areas now 
served by suburban railroads. 

It is contemplated that essentially all inter-city buses will 
enter downtown Boston over the Central Artery. They will be 
accommodated, under the expressway plan, in a new bus terminal 
which will be constructed under the elevated highway in the 
section along Atlantic Avenue between Congress and Oliver 
Streets. This terminal will be approached from either the north 
or the south with only minor use of surface streets and will have 
adequate capacity for anticipated bus traffic. A plan and eleva- 
tion of the proposed terminal is shown herewith. This station 
will be connected through an underground passageway with the 
South Station. 

It is also proposed that a bus station be provided on the 
Central Artery in the vicinity of Haymarket Square which will 
serve both transit and inter-city buses to and from the north. 
This station would connect by underground passageways with 



96 



both the Union-Friend and the Haymarket Square stations of the 
Metropolitan Transit Authority system. 

Tentative proposals have been made by the Metropolitan 
Transit Authority for a bus terminal in the South Station if and 
when a large portion of the suburban railroad service now op- 
erated by the New Haven Railroad is discontinued. Whether 
this bus station or the one under the Central Artery is the one 
to be built will depend largely on the sequence of events in carry- 
ing out both the transit and highway programs. Either station 



would be a vast improvement over the existing inadequate ter- 
minals provided for inter-city bus passengers. 

Studies are being continued by the Metropolitan Transit 
Authority of opportunities to consolidate rights-of-way for both 
highway and rail rapid transit functions. One or two interest- 
ing possibilities have developed and are being investigated fur- 
ther. If such consolidation can be effected to any substantial de- 
gree, major economies will follow. 




r^jL_ i 



-> 



1*- d 




►'**» '- 



% 




97 








SECTION A-A 

BO 100 



FEET 



PROPOSED BUS TERMINAL 

UNDER CENTRAL ARTERY 

NEAR SOUTH STATION 



98 




PROPOSED BUS STATION ON CENTRAL ARTERY 
AND CONNECTIONS TO EXISTING RAPID TRANSIT STATIONS 








SECTION A-A 



T - ^~, — — 










99 



ESTIMATES OF COST 



1 HE TOTAL COST FOR EACH OF THE PROJECTS REPORTED 

on herein is shown on the attached tabulation, and a breakdown 
of the total cost for each expressway section is given in Appendix 
B. Project costs include items for preliminary work; construc- 
tion cost and contingencies; engineering; demolition and moving 
of buildings; changes arid relocation of utilities; legal, adminis- 
trative and overhead costs; maintenance of traffic; and assessed 
valuations of right-of-way plus engineering, legal and administra- 
tive costs in connection with property acquisition. A lump sum 
item is included in the tabulation to cover total project costs for 
all of the work proposed under the section "Major Street System." 

PRELIMINARY COSTS 

Preliminary expenses include those generally incurred on 
large projects prior to the preparation of contract plans and 
specifications. Items of work normally included under this head- 
ing are special reports and studies, preliminary locations and 
estimates, borings and other sub-surface investigations, additional 
traffic studies, et cetera. This item is estimated at one percent 
of the construction costs. 

CONSTRUCTION COSTS 

Construction costs are based upon the design standards 
described heretofore which have been incorporated in each of 



the expressway projects to provide facilities of adequate capacity 
to safely and efficiently handle the predicted volumes of mixed 
traffic. These costs for the various expressways and for all items 
included in the street improvement program are based upon an 
analysis of conditions at each site, study of availability of local 
materials, current bid prices and contractors and suppliers costs 
on work of similar character. On certain items prices have been 
fixed after consultation with local contractors experienced on 
projects of the type involved. 

An item amounting to ten percent of the estimated construc- 
tion cost has been added to each of the projects to cover con- 
tingencies. 

ENGINEERING COSTS 

Engineering costs include items for preliminary and detailed 
surveys, the preparation of complete construction plans, specifica- 
tions and contract documents, general supervision of construc- 
tion, detailed inspection of materials and workmanship, bid 
analysis and contract awards, preparation of construction esti- 
mates and the coordination of all construction and material con- 
tracts. This item is figured at ten percent of the construction costs. 

DEMOLITION AND MOVING OF BUILDINGS 

In the matter of the demolition or relocation of existing 



100 



buildings, experience on similar highway projects has proven 
that separate contracts should be let for such purposes prior to 
the inauguration of actual construction contracts in order that 
the latter contractors will not be impeded or delayed in the prose- 
cution of their work and have a clear site available throughout 
the entire length of each project. In some instances sites are avail- 
able adjacent to the project where existing houses can be moved 
a few hundred feet and placed on new foundations. In other 
locations, buildings may be considered of such low value that it 
will be found more economical to demolish them entirely. 

The item of "Demolition and Moving of Buildings" as in- 
cluded herein is based upon prices prevailing. 

In view of the fact that there may be a time lapse prior to 
the start of actual construction and it may be found necessary to 
fill existing cellars under buildings which have been razed or 
moved, cost of this item of work has been included herein. 

CHANGES AND RELOCATION OF UTILITIES 

A number of utilities will be encountered during construc- 
tion of the various projects. These include sanitary and storm 
sewers, municipal and metropolitan water supply systems, mass 
transportation facilities, gas mains, overhead and underground 
electric systems, telephone and telegraph lines and railroads. 

In most instances, expressways have been so located as to 
minimize the amount of interference with the above-named 
utilities but, in certain locations, extensive changes cannot be 
avoided. The estimates presented herein include ample allow- 
ances for such changes based upon a study of existing plans and 
field reconnaissance in each instance. 

LEGAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND OVERHEAD 

Legal, administrative and overhead costs include a pro-rata 



amount of costs, not included herein but which would be in- 
curred by the Department of Public Works in connection with 
contractual matters and general expenses of a similar nature in- 
volving expenditures of funds on projects of this magnitude. 

MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC 

In order to maintain traffic on existing highways, transit and 
railroad lines, special consideration must be given to coordinat- 
ing the construction program. It has been found in other in- 
stances that detailed plans for this item must be worked out well 
in advance because of the length of time the particular facility 
may be affected. 

The estimate for this item therefore includes such facilities 
as temporary bridges and signs, special lights, temporary road- 
ways, leasing of rights-of-way, et cetera, and is based upon the 
cost of work of a similar character performed in other localities. 

RIGHT-OF-WAY COSTS 

Right-of-way costs in the Metropolitan Area form a large 
part of the total project cost and these will vary according to 
the character of the properties traversed. In estimating these 
costs a field survey of each route was made and assessment records 
were secured in each of the towns and cities affected. 

The estimates of right-of-way costs are based upon currently 
assessed valuations for both land and buildings. 

Costs incidental to the acquisition of right-of-way include 
engineering, legal and administrative costs. These items cover 
the preparation of surveys, property plats, appraisals, searching of 
records, court costs, moving of tenants and other expenses and 
amount to 15 percent of the assessed values. 



101 



ESTIMATES OF COST 

Expressway Section Mileage Construction Rights of Way Total 

(Assessed Valuations) 

Southeast Expressway H.8 $ 21,800,000 $ 6,200,000 $ 28,000,000 

Southwest Expressway 11.4 17,700,000 5,900,000 23,600,000 

Worcester Turnpike 3.7 5,400,000 3,200,000 8,600,000 

Western Expressway 7.7 15,400,000 2,900,000 18,300,000 

Northwest Expressway 12.1 17,700,000 5,400,000 23,100,000 

Northern Expressway 12.5 21,800,000 5,600,000 27,400,000 

Northeast Expressway 13.0* 14,200,000 5,700,000 19,900,000 

East Boston Expressway 2.5 24,400,000 1,600,000 26,000,000 

Belt Expressway, including Central Artery . . 10.7 72,500,000 31,000,000 103,500,000 

Sub Totals 85.4 $210,900,000 $67,500,000 $278,400,000 

Embankment Road 2.0 6,200,000 



Totals 87.4 $284,600,000 

Proposed Improvements to Existing Highways 26,000,000 11,400,000 37,400,000 



Grand Total $322,000,000 

Note: Expressway mileages are measured to center of Belt Expressway Interchanges. 

•Mileage includes New Mystic River Bridge. 

Construction Costs include Preliminary Costs; Engineering; Demolition; Changes in Utilities; Maintenance of Traffic and Contin- 
gencies. 

Right of Way Estimates are based upon current assessment valuations and include an item for acquisition costs. 



102 



ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION FOR 
EXPRESSWAY SYSTEM 



J. HE CONSTRUCTION OF ANY NEW HIGHWAY FACILITY 

for the use of the public, such as the proposed system of express- 
ways for the Boston Metropolitan Area, should be justified by a 
study of benefits weighed against costs. Such a study has been 
made on the basis of assumptions comparable to those which have 
proved sound under the rather rigid financing requirements for 
revenue producing facilities. These studies indicate that the 
proposed expressway system would be a good investment for the 
motorists and other taxpayers of the metropolitan area and that 
for this reason, as well as for all the social benefits anticipated, 
the project should be approved and built. 

Several studies were available to the consultants on average 
speeds of vehicle operation in various parts of the metropolitan 
area under present conditions. These speeds vary from an aver- 
age of 3 miles per hour in sections of downtown Boston to 30 
miles per hour on outlying highways. Since the greater portion 
of traffic operates in areas where speeds are low, it is estimated 
that weighted average speeds for all motor vehicle travel are be- 
tween 15 and 20 miles per hour. Average speeds of 35 to 40 
miles per hour would prevail on the proposed expressways. 
Time savings, therefore, would be approximately 1.5 minutes 
per mile. 

The value of a motorist's time has been debated for a num- 
ber of years without arriving at a generally accepted figure. Actu- 
ally, the amount a motorist or a truck operator is willing to pay 



for the use of a superior facility depends not alone on potential 
time savings but also on the extent to which relief is afforded 
from accident hazards, possibilities of major delays, and the irri- 
tations of pedestrians, traffic signals, turning vehicles, and all the 
other vexations typical of surface streets. A report entitled "Toll 
Roads and Free Roads" published by the Bureau of Public Roads 
in 1939 estimated that a toll of approximately 1^ per mile for 
automobiles and 3.5^ per mile for trucks, which would produce 
a weighted average toll of 1.5^ per vehicle-mile, would develop 
maximum revenues on a toll road. Inflationary trends since 
1939 would make a comparable figure for 1947 at least 2.0^ per 
vehicle-mile. At expressway speeds, this would be equivalent to 
about 1.25^ per vehicle-minute. Time savings averaging 9 or 
10 minutes would be realized by motorists using expressways in 
the Boston Metropolitan Area. 

The traffic in 1970, for which the expressways have been 
designed, has been estimated at approximately 275,000,000 in- 
dividual trips averaging 3.2 miles each or 880,000,000 vehicle- 
miles annually. At an assumed benefit of 2.0^ per vehicle-mile 
for the average vehicle, the proposed system would create a pub- 
lic benefit equal to approximately $17,600,000 per year. If this 
benefit were capitalized at 3 percent interest over a period of 
30 years, it would justify a capital expenditure of over $345,- 
000,000. The total cost of the recommended expressway has been 
estimated at $284,600,000 for construction and right-of-way. 



103 



Public benefits of 2.0^ per vehicle-mile, therefore, would exceed 
in total value the amount necessary for annual interest payments 
and retirement of principal, if the undertaking were to be viewed 
purely on a business basis. 

It is estimated that there will be 75,000,000 vehicle-miles 
of travel annually by 1970 on the Central Artery alone between 
Massachusetts Avenue and the interchange north of the Charles 
River. It is also estimated that this traffic will move at an aver- 
age speed of 30 miles per hour, rather than the present speed 
for vehicular trips in downtown Boston of less than 10 miles per 
hour, so that the average saving will be at least 4 minutes per 
mile. If the value of a motorist's and truck driver's time is taken 
at the conservative figure of 1.25^ per minute, the annual saving 
on the Central Artery in 1970 would be $3,750,000. This eco- 
nomic benefit, capitalized at 3 per cent over a period of 30 years, 
would justify an expenditure of approximately $73,500,000. The 
estimated cost of this same section of expressway, including con- 
struction and right-of-way, has been estimated at $59,500,000. 
The Central Artery as a terminal facility, therefore, would have 
to be partly justified by its indispensability to the balance of the 
expressway routes. This is typical of all types of transportation 
systems, and the Central Artery comes closer to being econom- 
ically justified as a unit than most terminal facilities. 

Maintenance and operating costs on the proposed express- 
way system would be more than offset by an equitable allotment 
of funds received by the Commonwealth from users of the ex- 
pressway in the form of gasoline taxes, vehicle registration fees 
and other regular sources of highway revenue. 



While the direct dollar benefits as estimated in this way 
prove that the expressways are justified, there are other benefits 
of perhaps even greater significance which would have just as 
real economic value but which cannot be so readily estimated. 
There are also social benefits which cannot be reduced to dollar 
value. Among these benefits is the assurance that traffic accidents 
would drop to a fraction of the rate on surface streets because 
the nature of expressways makes many of the most serious types 
of accidents physically impossible. Furthermore, if the express- 
ways are not built, many expensive expedients such as street 
widening, traffic officer control, parking prohibitions (compen- 
sated for by costly off-street parking facilities and truck loading 
docks) , and other substitutes will have to be applied more 
broadly than otherwise. The experience in other cities indicates 
that these steps alone do not satisfy the need for modern traffic 
arteries. Another major consideration is the improved service 
to inter-city passengers that would be furnished by operation of 
buses on the new highways. Finally, and perhaps of the greatest 
economic value, the expressways will protect and enhance prop- 
erty values throughout the metropolitan area and particularly 
in the central business district. The prosperity and welfare of 
every modern community depends on the expeditious movement 
of people and goods. 

While it is difficult to compute the exact value of the many 
benefits that will accrue to the community and its citizens as a 
result of the construction of the proposed system of expressways, 
it can easily be seen that the benefits will far exceed even the 
substantial cost involved. 



104 



CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE 



J. HE SCHEDULING OF A CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM OF 

the magnitude presented herein requires the coordination of 
financial planning, labor and material supplies, legal procedure, 
traffic demands and other controlling factors in order that the 
work may be prosecuted smoothly in stages consistent with the 
Commonwealth's desire and ability to finance such a program. 

The traffic analysis indicates volumes sufficient to require 
the construction of the major portion of this program immedi- 
ately. It is not within the province of this report to determine 
the amount of funds which can be made available from year to 
year to finance the recommended program and, therefore, a 
schedule has been set up to provide for the construction of usable 
sections thereof, according to the relative urgency of the needs of 
the various areas to be served. 

A study of the entire program indicates that a maximum of 
five stages or divisions of work should be planned. Each stage 
includes construction of portions of three or more expressway 
projects. Thus, work can be in progress simultaneously in widely 
separated sections of the metropolitan area, minimizing inter- 
ference with existing traffic and other services. 

An accompanying plate indicates by color which portions of 
the expressway projects are recommended for construction in 
each of the five stages. 

Recommended improvements to existing streets and street 



intersections should be accomplished as rapidly as the necessary 
funds become available. Since improvements in each location 
are urgently needed and work on each can be conducted inde- 
pendently, this part of the program can be completed without 
interference with the expressway construction plan. Priorities 
have not been established for this work. 

In setting up a stage construction or priority program, it 
must be recognized that the building of an expressway project 
in sections may impose conditions upon the existing street system 
tending to cause further congestion. In other words, the first 
unit of an individual expressway will not serve as an efficient 
artery by itself unless each unit is of sufficient length and pro- 
vided with connections to the existing street system in order that 
it may attract and distribute sufficient traffic in the proper man- 
ner. It is paramount, therefore, to insure the completion of an 
entire individual expressway prior to embarking on the construc- 
tion of a single section which by itself may be ineffective. In 
setting up the stages described hereinafter, limitations imposed 
by financial considerations, rights-of-way, engineering, construc- 
tion and planning have been coordinated with the above traffic 
factors in order to insure a high degree of utility. 

STAGE NO. 1 

a. Downtown Boston is the scene of the greatest traffic con- 



105 



gestion. The approach to the Sumner Tunnel is a typical ex- 
ample. The Central Artery as previously described, will offer 
immediate relief to this area and, therefore, this section of the 
Belt Route should be considered as the starting point for the 
entire expressway system in establishing a policy of building out- 
ward from the center of the city. Should the outer ends of the 
various expressways be constructed first, traffic would be collected 
and deposited at so-called "dead end" points where sufficient 
streets would not be available to carry this traffic. The Central 
Artery section involves the largest expenditure per mile and con- 
siderable time to construct primarily because of right-of-way 
conditions. In order that its capacity may be utilized to the full- 
est extent, it should be connected to the Mystic River Bridge as 
shown on Exhibit 24. At its southern end, it should be connected 
via the Massachusetts Avenue interchange with the Old Colony 
Parkway. A complete north-south facility would thus be formed 
to serve the downtown area. Traffic from the Sumner Tunnel 
will have access to this facility thereby relieving congestion on 
the Boston approach to this Tunnel. The interchange at Massa- 
chusetts Avenue will connect to surface streets for serving the 
Roxbury area. 

b. It is recommended that the Embankment Road project 
be included in the first construction stage. This facility has been 
proposed by the Metropolitan District Commission. This project 
can be constructed in a very short time and will furnish some 
measure of relief to Commonwealth Avenue and Beacon Street 
until such time as the entire Belt Expressway can be completed. 

c. Funds are available and plans have been completed for 
constructing the East Boston Elevated Highway approach to the 
Sumner Tunnel. As part of the East Boston Expressway, it is 
logical for this project to be placed in Stage No. 1. Its construc- 
tion will furnish immediate relief to Tunnel traffic at the East 
Boston Plaza. 

STAGE NO. 2 

The southwest and northwest sections of the Metropolitan 



area suffer from lack of adequate traffic arteries approaching the 
center of the City. It is, therefore, recommended that projects 
should be included in this stage which will provide relief to these 
areas. 

a. It is recommended that a short section of the Southwest 
Expressway be included in this stage to connect the Expressway 
Belt to Blue Hill Avenue in the vicinity of Washington and 
Seaver Streets. In this manner a new facility will be provided for 
truck traffic to relieve the congested section of Blue Hill Avenue 
between Washington Street and Massachusetts Avenue. 

b. The heaviest flow of traffic as indicated by the desire lines 
is in the western section now served by the Worcester Turnpike 
and Commonwealth Avenue. It is, therefore, important that 
these routes be improved at an early date in order that they will 
efficiently carry traffic until such time as the Western- Expressway 
can be completed. It is recommended that improvements to State 
Route 9, the Worcester Turnpike, from the Jamaicaway to Ham- 
mond Pond Parkway be included in this stage. 

c. & d. Traffic to the northwest presently moves to the down- 
town area via Commonwealth Avenue, Beacon Street and the 
boulevards on either side of the Charles River. Traffic from this 
area should be provided with its own artery because of the heavy 
volume desiring to move through the Cambridge-Somerville dis- 
trict. It is recommended that a section of the Northwest Express- 
way and the Expressway Belt be included in this stage to connect 
the Central Artery and the Mystic River Bridge to the Concord 
Turnpike and Massachusetts Avenue at the Alewife Brook Park- 
way. In this manner, an artery will also be provided for east- 
west traffic moving between Charlestown and the Mystic River 
Bridge to Cambridge and the west. Complete facilities will thus 
be afforded for traffic moving from the southeast via the Old 
Colony Parkway and the Sumner Tunnel to the Concord Turn- 
pike and Route 3 to the northwest. 

e. In order to further improve the connections at the north- 
east, it is recommended that a portion of the Northeast Express- 



106 




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o 
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way connecting the Mystic River Bridge with Squire Road and 
U. S. Route 1 and State Route 107 to Lynn be included in this 
stage, thus providing immediate relief to the Sumner Tunnel. 

STAGE NO. 3 

a. In logical order the remainder of the Belt Route should 
next be completed from the interchange at Massachusetts Avenue 
and Southampton Street to the Northwest Expressway connec- 
tion. Thus, all of the radial expressways except the Western will 
be connected to the Belt Route at an early date whereby effective 
relief can be provided in the distribution of traffic throughout 
the entire downtown Boston area. Complete routes will auto- 
matically be available for crosstown and by-passable movements 
around the Central Area. 

b. The remainder of the Southwest Expressway connecting 
with U. S. Route 1 should be included in this stage resulting in 
relief for the heavy truck traffic now forced to use Washington 
Street. 

c. At this stage, no doubt, traffic to East Boston will have 
increased to a point where the construction of the second Sumner 
Tunnel will be required. It has, therefore, been included in 
this group. 

STAGE NO. 4 

a. Under prior stages traffic to the southeast would be 
served by the Old Colony Parkway. It is recommended that the 
Southeast Expressway be continued under this stage from Gal- 
livan Boulevard to its southern terminus to connect with State 
Routes 3 and 18, in order to remove by-passable traffic from the 
business section of Quincy, particularly during the summer 
season. 

b. Next in priority should come the first section of the 
Western Expressway to connect the Belt Route with the Newton- 
Watertown area in the vicinity of Galen Street. 

c. Traffic presently passing through Stoneham from Route 



28 encounters serious congestion in this town. It is recommended 
that the first section of the Northern Expressway to be built 
under this stage should include a by-pass of Stoneham from the 
Fellsway route near Spot Pond to North Street in Reading. 

d. The second section of the Northern Expressway recom- 
mended for inclusion in this stage, involves reconstruction of the 
Northern Artery from Nashua Street to the Revere Beach Park- 
way. In this manner, an efficient expressway will be provided 
from downtown Boston via the Fellsway West to Reading. 

e. The short connection between State Route 107 and State 
Route 1-A at Revere Beach on the Northeast Expressway is in- 
cluded herein. 

STAGE NO. 5 

Under this stage the remainder of the various expressways 
are included as follows: 

a. Southeast Expressway from Columbia Circle to Gallivan 
Boulevard, to replace the Old Colony Parkway which had been 
used as part of the Southeast Expressway under Stage No. 1. 

b. The Western Expressway from Galen Street to its west- 
ern terminus at Commonwealth Avenue where a connection can 
be provided for an extension to meet U. S. Route 20 should this 
highway be completed by the time the Western Expressway is 
extended. 

c. The Northwest Expressway between Massachusetts Ave- 
nue through Winchester to connect with U. S. Route 3 and via 
the Woburn by-pass to connect with State Route 38. 

d. The Northern Expressway from the Revere Beach Park- 
way to the Stoneham by-pass. 

e. The improvement to U. S. Route 1, the Newburyport 
Turnpike, has been deferred until this point, however, it is rec- 
ommended that it be included in Stage No. 5 to complete the 
entire Northeast Expressway. 

The attached tabulation shows a breakdown of stage con- 
struction costs for the entire expressway system. 



108 



ESTIMATE OF EXPRESSWAY STAGE CONSTRUCTION COSTS 

Section Project 

Stage Project Cost Cost 

1 a. Expressway Belt — Mystic River Bridge connection via Central Artery 

to Southeast and Southwest Expressway Interchange .... $59,500,000 

Northeast Expressway — Connection and Revisions to South End of 

Mystic River Bridge 3,390,000 

Southeast Expressway — Expressway Belt to Old Colony Boulevard . 4,400,000 

$67,290,000 
1 b. Embankment Road — Charles Street to Bay State Road .... 6,200,000 

1 c. East Boston Expressway — East Boston Elevated Highway . . . 8,440,000 

Total Stage 1 

2 a. Southwest Expressway — Expressway Belt to Washington Street and 

Blue Hill Avenue 6,200,000 

2 b. State Route 9, Worcester Turnpike — Expressway Belt to Sumner Road 

and Warren Street 5,920,000 

Improvements to Route 9 — Sumner Road to Hammond Pond Parkway . 2,680,000 

8,600,000 
2 c. Expressway Belt — Northwest Expressway Interchange to Mystic River 

Bridge Connection 16,650,000 

2 d. Northwest Expressway — Expressway Belt to Concord Turnpike Con- 
nection 7,230,000 

Concord Turnpike Connection to Massachusetts Avenue at Alewife 

Brook Parkway 1,330,000 

Concord Turnpike Connection 1,750,000 

10,310,000 
2 e. Northeast Expressway — Connection and Revisions to North End of 

Mystic River Bridge 1,360,000 

Mystic River Bridge to 'Y' Interchange — Revere ..... 6,010,000 

'Y' Interchange — Revere to Cutler Highway and Squire Road . . 1,340,000 

'Y' Interchange — Revere to Broadway, Route 107 1,690,000 

10,400,000 

Total Stage 2 



Stage 
Cost 



$81,930,000 



$52,160,000 



109 



Stage 



ESTIMATE 

Project 



OF EXPRESSWAY STAGE 



INSTRUCTION 


COSTS 




Section 
Cost 


Project 
Cost 


Stage 
Cost 


Total 
Cost 




$27,350,000 






$ 5,050,000 








1,650,000 








10,700,000 


17,400,000 












17,560,000 










$62,310,000 






16,880,000 








9,700,000 








6,150,000 








7,960,000 








880,000 










$41,570,000 






6,720,000 








8.600,000 






4,980,000 








5,250,000 








2,560,000 


12,790,000 










9,890,000 








3,400,000 


13,290,000 












5,230,000 










$46,630,000 








$284,600,000 



3 a. Expressway Belt — Southeast and Southwest Expressway Interchange to 
Northwest Expressway Interchange ....... 

3 b. Southwest Expressway — Washington Street and Blue Hill Avenue to 
Neponset Parkway Connection ...... 

Neponset Parkway Connection 

Neponset Parkway Connection to U. S. Route 1 



c. East Boston Expressway — Proposed Tunnel .... 
Total Stage 3 

a. Southeast Expressway — Gallivan Boulevard to Routes 3 and 18 

b. Western Expressway — Expressway Belt to Galen Street . 

c. Northern Expressway — Stoneham By-Pass — Fellsway West to North 



4 
4 

4 

4 
4 

5 
5 
5 



Street, Reading 

d. Northern Expressway — Nashua Street to Revere Beach Parkway 

e. Northeast Expressway — Broadway, Route 107, to Route 1A . 
Total Stage 4 

a. Southeast Expressway — Old Colony Boulevard to Gallivan Boulevard 

b. Western Expressway — Galen Street to Commonwealth Avenue, Route 30 

c. Northwest Expressway — Massachusetts Avenue at Alewife Brook Park 

way to Bacon Street, Winchester 

Bacon Street, Winchester to U. S. Route 3 

Woburn By-pass Connection to Route 38 

5 d. Northern Expressway — Revere Beach Parkway to Main Street, Melrose 
Main Street, Melrose to Stoneham By-pass 

5 e. Northeast Expressway — Improvements to U. S. Route 1 — Squire Road 
to Route 128 



Total Stage 5 . 

Grand Total — All Stages 



110 



In conclusion, your Joint Board can take pride in having inspired 
the preparation of a Master Highway Plan for the Boston Metropolitan Area. 
Realization of the goals envisioned in this plan will require the enthusiastic 
support not only of the state departments represented on the Board but 
also of all the agencies at interest in each of the many cities and towns in 
the metropolitan area. This support should continue, moreover, through- 
out the extended period that will be required for the legislative, financing 
and final engineering phases of the program. 

An important initial step which should be instituted by State and 
local officials charged with the responsibility for construction of the ex- 
pressway system is to enact necessary legislation and proper ordinances to 
insure control of the rights-of-way for future use. 

The potential benefits will be worth the best efforts of all the indi- 
viduals and all the organizations called upon to serve. Transportation is 
the key to modern living. The recommended system of expressways and 
complementary traffic improvements will constitute a transportation bet- 
terment of the first magnitude. Benefits in the health, happiness and eco- 
nomic welfare of the citizens of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts will 
be comparably great. 



111 



APPENDIX A 

(APPENDICES 1 to 7) 

TRAFFIC TABLES 



APPENDIX 1 

Number of Daily Trips by All Types of Motor Vehicles 

Passing Thru the Study Area from Cordon to Cordon 

by Station of Entry 

Passenger 

Station Name of Road Located Cars b Trucks Total 

Number in Town of Taxis 

1 Route 129 Lynn 542 53 595 

2 Route 1A Lynn 365 39 404 

3 Essex Street Lynn 102 27 129 

4 Route 107 Lynn 82 15 97 

5 Lynn Street Peabody 87 20 107 

6 Lynnfield Street Lynn 138 20 158 

7 Route 1 Saugus 665 101 766 

8 Water Street, Route 129 Saugus 80 13 93 

9 Main Street Melrose 81 6 87 

10 Franklin Street Melrose 25 5 30 

11 Lynn Fells Parkway Melrose 92 92 

12 Woodland Road Medford 19 3 22 

13 Main Street, Route 28 Medford 343 47 390 

14 Marble Street Stoneham 35 4 39 

15 Washington Street Winchester 17 3 20 

16 Main Street, Route 38 Winchester 99 22 121 

17 Cambridge Street, Route 3 Winchester 163 30 193 

18 Summer Street, Route 2A Arlington 15 1 16 

19 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington 107 17 124 

20 Concord Pike, Route 2 Arlington 155 22 177 

21 Route 128 Waltham 278 60 338 

22 Route 117 Waltham 39 17 56 

23 Route 20 Waltham 214 45 259 

24 Route 30 Newton 24 8 32 

25 Washington Street Newton 121 18 139 

26 Route 9 Newton 431 30 461 

27 Central Avenue Needham 113 13 126 

28 Route 128 Newton 210 68 278 

29 Great Plain Road Needham 12 2 14 

30 Dedham Avenue, Route 135 Needham 197 23 220 

31 High Street, Route 109 Dedham 76 15 91 

32 Washington Street, Route 1A . . . . Dedham 170 23 193 

33 Providence Pike, Route 1 Dedham 623 90 713 

34 East Street Dedham 7 2 9 

35 Route 138 Milton 187 42 229 

36 Route 128 Milton 198 8 206 

37 Route 28 Quincy 296 34 330 

38 North Street Randolph 41 9 50 

39 Route 37 Braintree 171 21 192 

40 Route 18 Weymouth 205 21 226 

41 Union Street Weymouth 28 6 34 

42 Route 128 Weymouth 85 4 89 

43 Route 3 Weymouth 94 9 103 

44 High Street Weymouth 27 3 30 

45 Fort Hill Street Hingham 143 10 153 

46 Route 3A Weymouth 287 41 328 

47 Nahant Road Nahant 226 20 246 

Total 7,715 1,090 8,805 



Trucks Total 



APPENDIX 2 

Number of Daily Trips Crossing Cordon Line and 

Having Origin or Destination in Study Area 

by Type of Vehicle and Station 

Passenger 

Station Name of Road Located Cars b 

Number at Boundary of Taxis 

1 Route 129 Lynn 

2 Route 1A Lynn 

3 Essex Street Lynn 

4 Route 107 Lynn 

5 Lynn Street Peabody 

6 Lynnfield Street Lynn 

7 Route 1 Saugus 

8 Water Street, Route 129 Saugus 

9 Main Street Melrose 

10 Franklin Street Melrose 

1 1 Lynn Fells Parkway Melrose 

12 Woodland Road Melrose 

13 Main Street, Route 28 Melrose 

14 Marble Street Stoneham 

15 Washington Street Winchester 

16 Main Street, Route 38 Winchester 

17 Cambridge Street, Route 3 Winchester 

18 Summer Street, Route 2A Arlington 

19 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington 

20 Concord Pike, Route 2 Arlington 

21 Route 128 Waltham 

22 Route 117 Waltham 

23 Route 20 Waltham 

24 Route 30 Newton 

25 Washington Street Newton 

26 Route 9 Newton 

27 Central Avenue Needham 

28 Route 128 Newton 

29 Great Plain Road Needham 

30 Dedham Avenue, Route 135 Needham 

31 High Street, Route 109 Dedham 

32 Washington Street, Route 1A . . . . Dedham 

33 Providence Pike, Route 1 Dedham 

34 East Street Dedham 

35 Route 138 Milton 

36 Route 128 Milton 

37 Route 28 Quincy 

38 North Street Randolph 

39 Route 37 Braintree 

40 Route 18 Weymouth 

41 Union Street Weymouth 

42 Route 128 Weymouth 

43 Route 3 Weymouth 

44 High Street Weymouth 

45 Fort Hill Street Hingham 

46 Route 3A Weymouth 

47 Nahant Road Nahant 

Total 154,883 21,960 176,843 



5,691 


427 


6,118 


3,480 


375 


3,855 


2,064 


407 


2,471 


4246 


608 


4,854 


2,874 


466 


3,340 


2,818 


389 


3,207 


7,355 


1398 


8,953 


1,809 


206 


2,015 


4,981 


615 


5,596 


1245 


324 


1569 


3,778 


13 


3,791 


1,408 


220 


1,628 


8,180 


997 


9,177 


1.827 


166 


1.993 


1,607 


181 


1,788 


3,911 


983 


4,894 


3,415 


529 


3,944 


1,299 


287 


1586 


3,287 


555 


3,842 


7,663 


902 


8565 


3,308 


380 


3,688 


2,302 


251 


2553 


3,696 


577 


4,273 


2,769 


316 


3,085 


5,344 


1249 


6593 


10,325 


1,150 


11,475 


1,423 


198 


1,621 


4,858 


611 


5,469 


1,630 


152 


1,782 


783 


95 


878 


2,108 


257 


2.365 


3,125 


415 


3540 


4,697 


958 


5,655 


1,330 


278 


1.608 


5,666 


1,180 


6,846 


1,962 


88 


2,050 


4,724 


515 


5,239 


2.003 


582 


2585 


2,097 


377 


2,474 


2.356 


397 


2,753 


1,942 


208 


2,150 


1,007 


96 


1.103 


2,182 


171 


2,353 


1,319 


167 


1,486 


1,087 


160 


1,247 


5,879 


699 


6578 


2,023 


185 


2,208 



114 



APPENDIX 3 

Inter- and Intra-Zone Trips by Type of Vehicle for Zones 
of the Downtown Area and All Other Zones 

Passenger 

Movement Cars & Taxis Trucks Total 

Inter- and Intra-Zone Trips Between Downtown 

Area and Other /ones 117,968 43,682 161,650 

Inter- and Intra-Zone Trips Between Zones Ex- 
clusive of Downtown Area 349,180 114,575 463.755 

Total Inter- and Intra-Zone Trips 467,148 158,257 625,405 

Intra-Zone Trips — Downtown Area 3,668 8,570 12,238 

Intra-Zone Trips — Other Zones 62,247 34,980 97,227 

Total Intra-Zone Trips 65,915 43.550 109,465 

Inter-Zone Trips — Downtown Area and Other 

Zones 96,752 21,232 117,984 

Inter-Zone Trips — Downtown Area 17,548 13,880 31,428 

Inter-Zone Trips— Between Other Zones . . . . 286,933 79,595 366,528 

Total Inter-Zone Trips 401,233 114,707 515,940 

Intra Area Trips Downtown Area 21,216 22,450 43.666 



APPENDIX 4 

Pertinent Data from Origin and Destination Study 

A VGf BCC 

From External and Internal Surveys Daily Percent 

Total motor vehicle trips thru, into and within study area . 811,053 100.00 

Total motor vehicle trips from cordon to cordon .... 8,805 1.09 

Total motor vehicle trips from cordon to zone 176,843 21.80 

Total motor vehicle trips from zone to zone 625,405 77.11 

Total motor vehicle trips thru, into and within study area . 811,053 100.00 

By passenger cars and taxis 629,746 77.65 

By trucks 181,307 22.35 

Total motor vehicle trips thru, into and within study area . 811,053 100.00 

Total motor vehicle trips thru, into and within downtown 

area 206,593 25.47 

Total motor vehicle trips with origin or destination in the 

downtown area 147,925 18.24 



Total motor vehicle trips passing thru downtown area with- 
out stopping 15,002 1.85 

Total motor vehicle trips intra-area-movement downtown 

area 43,666 5.38 

Total motor vehicle trips with origin or destination in zones 

exclusive of the downtown area 619,462 76.38 

Total daily trips by mass transportation 979,471 100.00 

Total daily trips by Boston Elevated* and combination . . 807,600 82.45 

Total daily trips by independent bus and combination . . 123,534 12.61 

Total daily trips by railroad and combination 48,337 4.94 

Total daily trips by Boston Elevated 807,600 100.00 

Total daily trips by Boston Elevated between downtown area 

and zones 391,797 48.51 

Total daily trips by Boston Elevated intra-area movement 

downtown area 22,176 2.75 

Total daily trips by Boston Elevated between zones exclusive 

of the downtown area 341,337 42.27 

Total daily trips by Boston Elevated intra-zone trips, ex- 
clusive of the downtown area 52,290 6.47 

Total daily trips by independent bus 123,534 100.00 

Total daily trips by independent bus between downtown 

area and zones 5,775 4.67 

Total daily trips by independent bus between zones exclu- 
sive of downtown area 100,106 81.04 

Total daily trips by independent bus intra-zone trips, exclu- 
sive of downtown area 17,653 14.29 

Total daily trips by railroad 48,337 100.00 

Total daily trips by railroad between downtown area and 

zones 38,971 80.62 

Total daily trips by railroad intra-area movement downtown 

area 105 0.22 

Total daily trips by railroad between zones exclusive of the 

downtown area 9,198 19.03 

Total daily trips by railroad intra-zone trips, other zones . . 63 0.13 

"Boston Elevated is now operated by the Metropolitan Transit Authority. 



From External Survey 



Daily 
Average Percent 



Total motor vehicles into study area crossing cordon . . . 194,453 100.00 

Total motor vehicles with origin or destination in downtown 

area 29,941 15.40 

Total motor vehicles thru area crossing cordon line .... 17,610 9.05 

Total motor vehicles with origin or destination in zones ex- 
clusive of downtown area 146,902 75.55 



115 



APPENDIX 5 

Points of Origins and Destinations by Cities and Towns 
All Types of Motor Vehicles 



APPENDIX 6 

Points of Origins and Destinations by Cities and Towns 
Mass Transportation 











INTRA-AREA MOVEMENT 


INTER-AREA MOVEMENT 




City or Town 


Passenger 
b Taxi Trucks 


Total 


Passenger 
&Taxi 


Trucks 


Total 


Total 


Arlington . . 






21,876 5,440 


27,316 


3,891 


389 


4,280 


31596 


Belmont . . 






21,328 4,350 


25,678 


1,413 


53 


1,466 


27,144 


Boston: 










Downtown . 






139,132 66,242 


205,374 


26,522 


3,309 


29,831 


235,205 


Brighton 






27,636 12,320 


39,956 


3223 


418 


3,641 


43.597 


Roxbury 






60,912 29,680 


90,592 


7,625 


975 


8,600 


99,192 


Charlestown 






13,854 7,350 


21,204 


2,731 


732 


3,463 


24.667 


Dorchester 






37,434 15,902 


53,336 


3,812 


481 


4,293 


57,629 


East Boston 






13,002 7,940 


20,942 


1,526 


513 


2,039 


22,981 


Hyde Park 






7,879 2,980 


10,859 


1,704 


176 


1,880 


12,739 


South Boston 




21,601 12,890 


34,491 


3,767 


1,319 


5.086 


39,577 


West Roxbury 




27,151 10,030 


37,181 


3,148 


229 


3.377 


40,558 


Braintree . 








18,935 1,450 


20.385 


2,454 


366 


2.820 


23,205 


Brookline . 








31,290 11500 


42,790 


2,601 


113 


2,714 


45504 


Cambridge 








62,009 22,681 


84,690 


9,343 


1,919 


11,262 


95,952 


Chelsea 








11,393 6,610 


18,003 


1,419 


542 


1,961 


19,964 


Dedham 








8,325 2,261 


10,586 


3,353 


417 


3,770 


14,356 


Everett 








14,730 4,950 


19,680 


1,920 


622 


2,542 


22,222 


Lynn . . 








41,730 10,570 


52,300 


20,000 


2,310 


22,310 


74,610 


Maiden 








34,051 4,760 


38,811 


3,651 


371 


4,022 


42,833 


Medford 








22,729 6,310 


29,039 


3,797 


400 


4,197 


33,236 


Melrose 








18,080 3,460 


21540 


3,349 


308 


3,657 


25,197 


Milton . . 








11,254 2,890 


14,144 


1,513 


118 


1,631 


15,775 


Newton 








63.414 10,331 


73,745 


9,685 


926 


10,611 


84,356 


Quincy 








67,521 9,533 


77,054 


7,642 


1,039 


8,681 


85,735 


Revere 








13,102 3,830 


16,932 


1,101 


257 


1,358 


18,290 


Saugus . . 








9,807 1,170 


10,977 


1,388 


172 


1,560 


12,537 


Somerville 








27,008 16,130 


43,138 


3,711 


1,133 


4,844 


47,982 


Waltham . 








29,711 8,524 


38,235 


7,376 


890 


8,266 


46,501 


Watertown 








23.060 7,250 


30,310 


1,979 


335 


2,314 


32,624 


Weymouth 








14,189 2,610 


16,799 


4,910 


624 


5,534 


22,333 


Winchester 








9,382 2,650 


12.032 


3,911 


453 


4,364 


16,396 


Winthrop . 








10,771 1,920 


12,691 


418 


51 


469 


13.160 


Totals . . 








934,296 316,514 


1,250,810 


154,883 


21.960 


176,843 


1,427,653 



City or Town 


BY 
RAILROAD 


BY 
INDEPENDENT 


BUS 


BY 
BOSTON ELEVATED* 


Crand 


Alone 


In Com- 
bination 


Total 


Alone 


In Com- 
bination 


Total 


Alone 


In Com- 
bination 


Total 


Total 


Arlington . 


1.155 


357 


1512 


42 


147 


189 


23,016 


798 


23,814 


25,515 


Belmont 


231 


147 


378 


378 


252 


630 


13,944 


568 


14512 


15520 


Boston: 




Downtown 


28,676 


10,505 


39,181 


3,696 


2,079 


5,775 


409,584 26565 


436,149 


481,105 


Brighton 


1,241 


168 


1,409 


252 


126 


378 


58,737 


1,764 


60,501 


62288 


Roxbury 


441 


1,260 


1,701 


294 


462 


756 


192,911 


3,003 


195,914 


198,371 


Charlestowr 


i 336 


273 


609 


504 


21 


525 


46,695 


777 


47,472 


48,606 


Dorchester 


336 


126 


462 


273 


252 


525 


117,696 


1,953 


119,649 


120,636 


E. Boston 


42 


399 


441 


294 


42 


336 


51.316 


1,827 


53,143 


53,920 


Hvde P'k 


420 


273 


693 


105 


63 


168 


20,580 


693 


21273 


22,134 


S. Boston 


1.029 


1,050 


2,079 




483 


483 


76,358 


1233 


77591 


80.153 


W.Roxb'y 


2,331 


168 


2,499 


609 




609 


61,951 


777 


62,728 


65,836 


Braintree . 


1,407 


2,142 


3549 


8,190 


231 


8,421 




609 


609 


12579 


Brookline . 


1,134 


231 


1,365 


42 





42 


33,684 


987 


34,671 


36,078 


Cambridge 


147 


966 


1,113 


357 


357 


714 


132,174 


2.310 


134,484 


136,311 


Chelsea 


126 


42 


168 


379 


126 


505 


21273 


441 


21,714 


22.387 


Dedham 


462 





462 


5544 


189 


5,733 


231 


987 


1,218 


7,413 


Everett 


42 


42 


84 


336 


546 


882 


32,340 


189 


32,529 


33,495 


Lynn . . 


840 


1,197 


2,037 


74,005 


2520 


76,525 


84 


420 


504 


79,066 


Maiden 


987 


1239 


2226 


5523 


651 


6,174 


53248 


609 


53,857 


62257 


Medford 


. 1,458 


189 


1,647 


105 




105 


41,335 


1,008 


42,343 


44,095 


Melrose 


2,562 


1,665 


4.227 


10,017 


672 


10,689 


210 


3,948 


4,158 


19,074 


Milton . . 








2,457 


105 


2,562 


2,079 


6552 


8,631 


11,193 


Newton 


7,161 


1,134 


8,295 


18,753 


252 


19,005 


6,447 


9,996 


16,443 


43,743 


Quincy 


7,854 


5249 


13,103 


50,043 


798 


50,841 


6,195 


3548 


9,743 


73,687 


Revere 


42 


42 


84 


4,387 


42 


4,429 


25552 


84 


25,636 


30,149 


Saugus 


210 


63 


273 


8,883 


609 


9,492 





147 


147 


9.912 


Somerville 


378 


63 


441 









70,203 


1,617 


71,820 


72261 


Waltham . 


798 


588 


1,386 


18,648 


126 


18,774 


42 


4,893 


4,935 


25,095 


Watertown 


42 


168 


210 


2,079 


21 


2,100 


23,667 


945 


24,612 


26,922 


Weymouth 


1,092 


1,176 


2,268 


7.455 


273 


7,728 





189 


189 


10,185 


Winchester 


2,016 


756 


2,772 


4,872 





4,872 




2,730 


2,730 


10,374 


Winthrop 









6,954 


147 


7,101 


462 


11,019 


11,481 


18582 


Totals . . 


64,996 31,678 96,674 235,476 


11592 247,068 


1522.014 93,186 


1,615200 


1,958,942 



'Now Metropolitan Transit Authority. 



116 



APPENDIX 7 



Total Daily Trips Made by All Types of Motor Vehicles between the Downtown 
of Boston and Zones and Roadside Interview Stations Within Each Area 



Area 



Area 



Between Downtown 
Area and Zones 
not in Downtown 


Between Downtown Area 

and Roadside Interview 

Stations 




Total Movement 




Daily Trips 


Number 

of 
Stations 


Daily Trips 




Daily Trips 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Percent 

Total Trips 

Between 

Downtown 

Area and 

Zones 


Percent 
Total Trips 
Between 
Downtown 
Area and 
Roadside 
Interview 
Stations 


18,277 


15.49 


12 


6.725 


22.46 


25,002 


16.90 


73.10 


26.90 


16,519 


14.01 


6 


2,934 


9.80 


19,453 


13.15 


84.92 


15.08 


34.595 


29.32 


8 


7,532 


25.16 


42,127 


28.48 


82.12 


17.88 


22,017 


18.66 


9 


7,651 


25.55 


29,668 


20.06 


74.21 


25.79 


8,500 


7.20 


3 


1,499 


5.01 


9,999 


6.76 


85.00 


15.00 


9,981 


8.46 


9 


3,600 


12.02 


13,581 


9.18 


73.49 


26.51 


8,095 


6.86 


_^ 


_ 


_ 


8,095 


5.47 


100.00 


_ 



1 .... 

2 .... 

3 .... 

4 .... 

5 .... 

6 .... 

7 

Toial 117,984 



100.00 



47 



29,941 



100.00 



147,925 



100.00 



79.76 



20.24 



Area 1 — from the south and includes Weymouth, Braintree, 
Quincy, Milton, Dorchester, Roxbury and 12 road- 
side interview stations. 

Area 2 — from the southwest and includes Dedham, Jamaica 
Plain, West Roxbury, Hyde Park and 6 roadside 
interview stations. 

Area 3 — from the west and includes Allston, Brighton, Brook- 
line, Newton, Waltham, Watertown, and 8 roadside 
interview stations. 



Area 4 — from the northwest and includes Arlington, Bel- 
mont, Cambridge, Medford, Somerville, Winchester 
and 9 roadside interview stations. 

Area 5 — from the north and includes Charlestown, Everett, 
Maiden, Melrose and 3 roadside interview stations. 

Area 6 — from the northeast and includes Chelsea, Lynn, 
Revere, Saugus, East Boston, Winthrop, and 9 road- 
side interview stations. 

Area 7 — South Boston. 



117 



APPENDIX B 



COST ESTIMATE TABLES 






APPENDIX B — ESTIMATES OF COST 



CONSTRUCTION 



RIGHTS OF WAY 



Description 



No. 

of 

Lanes 



Mile- 
age 



Changes 

of 
Utilities 



Construc- 
tion Cost 
Including 
Contin- 
gencies 



Prelim- 
inary 
Cost 



Engineer- 
ing 



Mainte- Assessed Acquisi- 

Demo- nance of Value of lion of 

lition Traffic Right of Right of 

Way Way 



Totals 



SOUTHEAST EXPRESSWAY 

a. Expressway Belt to Old Colony Boulevard . 6 

b. Old Colony Boulevard to Gallivau Boulevard 6 

c. Gallivau Boulevard to Routes 3 and 18 . . 6 

SOUTHWEST EXPRESSWAY 

a. Expressway Belt to Washington Street and 
Blue Hill Avenue 6 

b. Washington Street and Blue Hill Avenue to 
Neponset Parkway Connection 6 

c. Neponset Parkway Connection 4 

d. Neponset Parkway Connection to U. S. Route 1 4 

STATE ROUTE 9— Worcester Turnpike 

a. Expressway Belt to Sumner Road and War- 
ren Street 6 

b. Improvements to Route 9 — Sumner Road to 
Hammond Pond Parkway 6 

WESTERN EXPRESSWAY 

a. Expressway Belt to Galen Street 6 

b. Galen Street to Commonwealth Avenue — 
Route 30 6 

NORTHWEST EXPRESSWAY 

a. Expressway Belt to Concord Turnpike Con- 
nection 6 

b. Concord Turnpike Connection to Massachu- 
setts Avenue at Alewife Brook Parkway . . 4 

c. Concord Turnpike Connection 4 

d. Massachusetts Avenue at Alewife Brook Park- 
way to Bacon Street, Winchester 4 

e. Bacon Street, Winchester, to U. S. Route 3 . 4 

f. Woburn By-pass Connection to Route 38 . . 4 



1.30 
2.54 
7.99 



1.77 

3.14 
1.08 
5.44 



1.39 

2.35 
3.74 

3.71 

4.02 



2.18 

0.47 
0.95 

2.43 
4.06 
2.05 



$250,000 
640,000 
860,000 



$2,660,000 $25,000 

3,330,000 30,000 

11,510,000 115,000 



$265,000 $15,000 

330,000 40,000 

1,155,000 55,000 



$ 75,000 $ 970,000 
100.000 1,960,000 
345,000 2,460,000 



$140,000 
290,000 
380,000 



380,000 

470,000 
1 10,000 
820,000 



2,140,000 20,000 



215,000 60,000 



65,000 2,890,000 430,000 



3,270,000 
1,100,000 
7.350,000 



35,000 
10,000 
75,000 



330,000 
110,000 
735,000 



15,000 

5,000 

30,000 



100,000 

35,000 

220,000 



720,000 

240,000 

1,280,000 



1 10,000 

40,000 

190,000 



350,000 3,130,000 31,000 310,000 34,000 
100,000 1,160,000 12,000 120,000 23,000 



450,000 4,290,000 43,000 430,000 57,000 
560,000 6,780,000 70,000 680,000 24,000 
500,000 5,750,000 60,000 580,000 26,000 



95,000 

35.000 
130,000 

200,000 

170,000 



1,710,000 

1,070,000 
2,780,000 

1 ,206,000 

1,314,000 



260,000 

160,000 
420,000 

180,000 

200,000 



330,000 3,620,000 35,000 360,000 52,000 

70,000 500,000 5,000 50,000 20,000 

50,000 1,340,000 10,000 130.000 3,000 

360,000 3,080,000 30,000 310,000 23,000 

220,000 3,910,000 40,000 390,000 10,000 

100,000 1,990,000 20,000 200,000 2,000 



$ 4,400,000 

6,720,000 

16,880,000 



11.83 1,750,000 17,500,000 170,000 1,750,000 110,000 520,000 5,390,000 810,000 28,000,000 



6,200,000 

5,050,000 

1,650,000 

10,700,000 



11.43 1,780,000 13,860,000 140,000 1,390,000 110,000 420.000 5,130,000 770,000 23,600,000 



5,920,000 

2,680,000 
8,600,000 

9,700,000 

8,600.000 



7.73 1,060,000 12,530,000 130,000 1,260,000 50,000 370,000 2520,000 380.000 18,300,000 



12.14 1,130,000 14,440,000 140,000 1,440,000 110,000 



1 10,000 


2,370,000 


353,000 


7,230,000 


20,000 


580,000 


85,000 


1,330,000 


40,000 


150,000 


27,000 


1,750,000 


90,000 


947,000 


140,000 


4,980,000 


120,000 


490,000 


70,000 


5,250,000 


60,000 


163,000 


25,000 


2.560,000 


440,000 


4,700,000 


700,000 


23,100,000 



120 



APPENDIX B 



ESTIMATES OF COST 

CONSTRUCTION 



RIGHTS OF WAY 



No. Changes 

Description of Mile- of 

Lanes age Utilities 

NORTHERN EXPRESSWAY 

a. Nashua Street to Revere Beach Parkway . . 6 3.15 $630,000 
I). Stonehain Bypass — Fellsway West to North 

Street, Reading 4 4.35 550,000 

c. Revere Beach Parkway to Main Street. Melrose 6 2.75 390.000 

d. Main Street, Melrose to Sioneham By-pass . 4 2.27 270,000 

12.52 1,840,000 
NORTHEAST EXPRESSWAY 

a. Mystic River Bridge 6 1.54 

I). Connection and Revisions to South End of 

Mystic River Bridge 6 0.46 

c. Connection and Revisions to North End of 

Mystic River Bridge 6 0.21 100,000 

d. Mystic River Bridge to "Y" Interchange — 

Revere 6 1.99 410.000 

e. "Y" Interchange — Revere to Cutler High- 
way and Squire Road 4 0.66 120,000 

f. "Y" Interchange — Revere to Broadway, 

Route 107 4 0.74 120,000 

g. Broadway, Route 107, to Route 1A . . . . 4 0.79 90,000 
h. Improvements to U. S. Route 1 — Squire 

Road to Route 128 6 6.60 250,000 

12.99 1,090,000 
EAST BOSTON EXPRESSWAY 

a. Proposed Tunnel 2 1.27 

b. East Boston Elevated Highway 6 1.24 200,000 

2.51 200,000 
EXPRESSWAY BELT 

a. Mystic River Bridge Connection via Central 
Artery to Southeast and Southwest Express- 
way Interchange 6 3.40 1,550,000 

b. Southeast and Southwest Expressway Inter- 
change to Northwest Expressway Interchange 6 4.69 1,230,000 

c. Northwest Expressway Interchange to Mystic 

River Bridge Connection 6 2.64 920,000 

10.73 3.700,000 
EMBANKMENT ROAD 
a. Charles Street to Bay State Road 6 1.98 

IMPROVEMENTS TO EXISTING STREET 

SYSTEM 



Construc- 
tion Cost Prelim- 
Including inary 

Contin- Cost 

gencies 



Engineer- Demo- 
ing lition 



Mainte- Assessed Acquisi- 

nance of Value of tion of 

Traffic Right of Right of 

Way Way 



Totals 



$4,260,000 $40,000 $425,000 $50,000 $125,000 $2,110,000 $320,000 $ 7,960,000 



4,610,000 45,000 460,000 5,000 
5,910,000 60,000 590,000 53,000 
2,640,000 25,000 265,000 2,000 



135,000 300,000 45,000 

180,000 2,350,000 357,000 

80,000 100,000 18,000 



6,150,000 
9,890,000 
3,400,000 



17.420,000 170,000 1.740,000 110,000 520,000 4,860,000 740,000 27,400,000 



2,360,000 


20,000 


235,000 


12,000 


70,000 


600,000 


93,000 


3,390,000 


800,000 


10,000 


80,000 


6,000 


25.000 


294,000 


45,000 


1,360,000 


3,530,000 


35.000 


355,000 


33,000 


105,000 


1 ,342,000 


200,000 


6,010,000 


980,000 


10,000 


100,000 


1,000 


30,000 


89,000 


10,000 


1,340,000 


1 ,020,000 


10,000 


100,000 


7,000 


30,000 


350,000 


53,000 


1,690,000 


580,000 


5,000 


55,000 


2,000 


15,000 


115,000 


18,000 


880,000 


2,140,000 


20,000 


215,000 


49,000 


65,000 


2,160,000 


331,000 


5,230,000 


11,410,000 


110,000 


1,140,000 


110,000 


340,000 


4,950,000 


750,000 


19,900,000 


15,000,000 


150,000 


1,500,000 


10,000 


450,000 


390,000 


60,000 


17,560,000 


6,200,000 


60,000 


630,000 


20,000 


180,000 


1,000,000 


150,000 


8,440,000 


21,200,000 


210.000 


2,130,000 


30,000 


630,000 


1,390,000 


210,000 


26,000,000 



34,660,000 345,000 3,460,000 190.000 

16,430,000 165,000 1,650,000 120,000 

8,910,000 90,000 890,000 100,000 



1,030,000 15,890,000 2,375,000 59,500,000 
490,000 6,310,000 955,000 27,350,000 
270,000 4,760,000 710,000 16,650,000 



60,000,000 600,000 6,000,000 410,000 



1,790,000 26,960,000 4,040,000 103,500,000 

6,200,000 



26,000,000 



9,900,000 1,500,000 37,400,000 



121 



APPENDIX C 



KEY MAP AND EXPRESSWAY PLANS AND PROFILES 



NORTHWEST 
EXPRESSWAY 



RT 128 

SALEM ST 



RT 20 



WESTERN 
EXPRESSWAY 

RT. 128 
RUMFORD 



NORTHEAST 

EXPRESSWAY 

NORTH SHORE RO 

Wf9 v i a 107 
REVERE BEACH PKWY 
^WASHINGTON AVE 

EAST BOSTON 
E XPEESSWflY 

IEPTUNE RO 
AIRPORT CONNECTION 
PORTER ST 



124 




50UTHWE5T 
EXPEESSWflY v^ 15 

RT 

KEY MRP OF EXPRESSWAY EXHIBITS 



EXHIBIT 1 




Expressway locations 
shown are subject to 
change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineer) — Boston 

DeLEUW. CATHER &. CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago BiltlDior« 



SOUTHEAST EXPRESSWAY 

Massachusetts Avenue, Roxbury to 
Neponset River, Quincy 



^ 




scoi-E in rcei Expressway locations 

soo iooo shown are subject to 

change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

DeLEUW, CATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Southeast Expressway 
Neponset River, Quincy to Rodman Street, Quincy 




CHARLES A. MAQUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineer) — Boiton 

DeLEUW, GATHER I CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltfmor* 



Southeast Expressway 

Rodman Street. Quincy to Washington 

Street. Weymouth 



EXHIBIT 6 




Expressway locations 

lo °° shown are subject to 

change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

DeLEUW, CATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Southwest Expressway 
Austin Street, Hvde Hark to Austin Street. Dorchester 



EXHIBIT 7 




SCALE IN FEET 



Expressway locations 
shown are subject to 
change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineer! — Boston 

DeLEUW. CATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Southwest Expressway 

Austin Street, Dorchester to Massachusetts Avenue, 

Roxburv 



EXHIBIT 8 




60 


ft 

UJ 

? 

O 

10 


COLLIN3 


Dl 

UJ 

> 

5 




UJ 
A 

Z 

o 
a. 
u 
z 


at 

UJ 

> 








■ 

5 

s 

u 


0i->-' 
Li J 

hi o- 


70 














■ 


/ 


fid 












/ fcO 


50 ^S^ 






r i' - ==== ^'~~~ "* " 










/ 


40 —" ^— ._ — 


■ ^ . 


_^-" ™ *_^**« -^ 






/ \ 


) 




.... " 















ro 


20 


10 


to 


o 


o 



SCALE IN FEET 

O 50O 

J -fa= 



Expressway locations 

iooo shown arc subject to 

^^ change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

OeLEUW, CATHER & CO. I. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Southwest Expressway 
Newburn Street. Hyde Park to 
Neponset River Parkway, Milton 



EXHIBIT 9 




500 

> 1 



SCALE IN FEET 

O 500 

-I -±= 



Expressway locations charles a. maguire and associates 

iooo Shown are subject to Engineers - Boston 

_j 1* . _ . J j . DeLEUW, CATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

== change in final design. ,;„,„,„ B.itimor. 



Worcester Turnpike 

State Route 9 — Sumner Road, Biookline to Riverway 

(U.S. Route Number 1) , Biookline 



EXHIBIT 10 




Expressway locations 
shown are subject 10 
change in final design, 



Western Expressway 

Commonwealth Avenue, Newton to Galen Street, 

Watertown 




Expressway locations 
iooo shown arc subject to 
^ change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAUU1HE AND ASSOCIATES 

L'nniri. i-f. — Boiton 

OiLEUW. GATHER t CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

ChkiQo Biltimor* 



Western Expressway 
Galen Slreet. Waiertown to 
Memorial Drive. Cambridge 



EXHIBIT 12 




SCALE IN FEET 



" Expressway locations 
1000 shown are subject to 
^ change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

DeLEUW. CATHER & CO. ). E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Northwest Expressway 

Cambridge Street, Woburn to 

Bacon Street, Winchester 



EXHIBIT 13 





sc«le in r-eci Expressway locations 

3 °° |°oo shown are subject to 

change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGU1RE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

DeLEUW. CATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



North wlst Expressway 

Bacon Street, Winchester to Massachusetts Avenue. 

Cambridge 



EXHIBIT 14 





SCALE IN rcir 



Expressway locations 
1000 .shown are subject to 
s^ change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineer! — Boston 

DeLEUW. GATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



NORTHWESI fcXI'RESSWAY 

Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge to Webster Avenue, 
Somerville 



EXHIBIT 15 




Expressway locations 
1000 shown are subject to 
^ change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

DeLEUW. CATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Northwest Expressway 
N.W. Expressway, Woburn to Elm Street, Woburn 



EXHIBIT 16 




Expressway locations 
shown are subject to 
change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUtflE AND ASSOCIATES 

Englnetn — Btiten 

DrlFUW. GATHER A CO. J. E. OflEINER COMPANY 

Chliils Biltlnor* 



Northern Expressway 

Nashua Street. Boston to 

Mystic Valley Parkway. Medford 



EXHIBIT 17 




Expressway locations 
shown are subject to 
change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Enoineers — Boston 

OeLEUW, CATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Northern Expressway 

Mystic Valley Parkway, Medford to Goodyear Avenue. 

Melrose 



EXHIBIT 18 




Expressway locations 
lo °° shown are subject to 
change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

DoLEUW, CATHER & CO. I. E. GRE1NER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Northern Expressway 
Goodyear Avenue, Melrose to Spring Street, Stoneham 



EXHIBIT 19 




Expressway locations 
shown are subject to 
change in final design. 



CHARLES A, MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

DeLEUW, CATHER «. CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Northern Expressway 
Spring Street, Stoneham to North Avenue, Reading 




Expressway locations 
shown are subject to 
change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASB0C1ATE8 

Englnetn — Button 
EUW, GATHER & CO. J. E. QREINER COMPANY 

Chi !•(( Qalllmorc 



NORTHEAST EXPRESSWAY 

Mystic River Bridge. Chelsea to Cutler Highway. Reicre 



EXHIBIT 21 




soo 

I — , 



SCALE IN TEET 

o 500 



Expressway locations 

1000 shown are subject to 

^ change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Bolton 

DeLEUW. CATHER & CO. i. E. 6REINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



East Boston Expressway 

Sumner Tunnel, East Boston to Harmony Street, 

East Boston 



4" 



EXHIBIT 22 




SCALE IN FEET 

O 500 

-I «= 



Expressway locations 
shown are subject to 
change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

DeLEUW, CATHER i CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Belt Route — including Central Artery 
Water Street. Somerville to Colchester Street. Brookline 



EXHIBIT 23 




Expressway locations 
1000 shown are subject to 
^ change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

DoLEUW, CATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicago Baltimore 



Belt Route — including Central Arterv 

Colchester Street, Brookline to Massachusetts Avenue, 

Roxbury 



EXHIBIT 24 




300 

L-i 



Expressway locations 
shown are subject to 
change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND AS90CIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

DelEUW. CATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANY 

Chicaoo Baltimore 



Belt Route — including Central Artery 

Water Street, Somerville to 

Warren Avenue Bridge. Boston 




ELEVATED E X P g E 53 



- V,- ,' ,■' ,' ,■•■■•■'■■■-= 



"1 




ELEVATED EXPRE55WAY 




5C«lc in ret 



Expressway locations 
shown are subject to 
change in final design. 



CHARLES A. MAGU1RE AND ASSOCIATES 

Engineers — Boston 

OeLEUW. GATHER I CO. J. E. GREINER COMPANV 

Chicago Baltimore 



Belt Route — including Central Arterv 
Warren Avenue Bridge, Boston to 
Massachusetts Avenue. Roxbury 








MAPS 



THE MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 

FOR THE 

BOSTON METROPOLITAN AREA 



DOWNTOWN BOSTON 

SHOWING CENTRAL ARTERY, EMBANKMENT ROAD, 
SURFACE STREET IMPROVEMENTS AND ONE-WAY STREETS 



1937 




NAVY YAftD 



I 






I 















DOWNTOWN BOSTON 

SHOWING CENTRAL ARTERY, EMBANKMENT ROAD. 
SURFACE STREET IMPROVEMENTS AND ONE-WAY STREETS 

ACCOMPANYING REPORT ON 

THE MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 

FOR THE 

BOSTON METROPOLITAN AREA 

PREPARED FOR 

THE JOINT BOARD FOR THE 
METROPOLITAN MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 



CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

ENGINEERS BOSTON 

IN COOPERATION WITH 

OELEUW, CATHER & CO. J. E. GREINER CO. 

CHICAGO BALTIMORE 

SCALE IN FEET 



\f 








&&V^ 








^J 



■^ Y 







o 
K 
x o 
o 

*q 

DOWNTOWN BOSTON 

SHOWING CENTRAL ARTERY, EMBANKMENT ROAD, 
SURFACE STREET IMPROVEMENTS AND ONE-WAY STREETS 

ACCOMPANYING REPORT ON 

THE MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 

FOR THE 

BOSTON METROPOLITAN AREA 

PREPARED FOR 

THE JOINT BOARD FOR THE 
METROPOLITAN MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 

BY 

CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 
ENGINEERS BOSTON 

IN COOPERATION WITH 
DELEUW, CATHER a CO. J. E. GREINER CO. 

CHICAGO BALTIMORE 

SCALE IN FEET 

200 400 600 600 1000 1200 




Boston Public Library 









X 










/ 



;n o r t 



\ 



\ 



W I L M I N 







o 



i 

e 





m I 






THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
STATE PLANNING BOARD 



METROPOLITAN 
OF BOSTON 



DISTRICT 



SCALE IN ftCT 

»BOC 



■ 



■ 
■ 
COMHl*£.i ' 

v,-on(« or i-»L«; womu 

THIS MAP ORIGINALLY PREPARED BY 
THE DIVISION OF METROPOLITAN PLANNING 



1 



MAP SHOWING 

MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 

FO.EU -TffE" 
BOSTON METROPOLITAN AREA 

ACCOMPANYING A REPORT PREPARED FOR 

THE JOINT BOARD FOR THE 

METROPOLITAN MASTER HIGHWAY PLAN 

CHARLES A. MAGUIRE AND ASSOCIATES 

ENGINEERS^v BOSTON 

TlN COOPERATION WITH 






DELEUW CATHER a CO 
CHICAGO 



J. E. GREINER CO. 




-: v »*. 




Boston Public Library 







/ 






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i ? WJSmr >*** ■ ** c K L A N °r- 



a SEMI-UNMTEO 
CTS TO THE 
(PRESSWAY SYSTEM 

NO R WE L \y 

STREET IMPROVEMENTS 

INTERSECTION IMPROVEMENTS 

V 

M£JOR STREETS— A. 
PARKWAYS 



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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY